Ceroxylon echinulatum Galeano, Caldasia 17: 399 (1995)

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http://media.e-taxonomy.eu/palmae/photos/palm_tc_37249_1.jpg

Distribution

Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
Ecuadorpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)C
Perupresent
Western and eastern Andes in Ecuador and Eastern Andes in Peru, in humid premontane and lower montane forest, at 1600-2200 m, in pastures, coffee plantations, crop plots, and remnant forests. It forms populations of hundreds of individuals and apparently it was very abundant in the past. On the eastern Andes of Ecuador there are still extensive populations, especially of old individuals that are left standing in the middle of pastures, but regeneration is usually very abundant near forest patches left along streams (Borchsenius, pers. comm.). (Maria Jose Sanin & Gloria Geleano in Phytotaxa 34 (2011))B

Discussion

  • This species now includes the former C. alpinum subsp. ecuadorense Galeano. The white indumentum of the peduncular bracts supporting this arrangement. Molecular studies (Trénel et al. 2007b)
    presented the well-supported monophyly of these two entities according to AFLP, and a 6-gene data set (including PRK, matK, trnD-trnT, ndhF, and ITS), and also by finding active gene flow between these two populations. The evidence suggests that cline divergence and Quaternary dispersal have maintained the biological continuum between the populations of the morphotype described as C. alpinum subsp. ecuadorenseand C. echinulatum in Ecuador (Trénel et al. 2008).
    Ceroxylon echinulatum is diagnosed by its very long petiole, leaves arched with pinnae regularly arranged, slightly to completely pendulous; staminate flowers with 9-12 stamens and very long-acuminate petals, and fruits with exocarp densely covered with prominent, irregular and acute bulges. (Maria Jose Sanin & Gloria Geleano in Phytotaxa 34 (2011))B

Conservation

Common Name

Uses

  • The stems are used for building houses and fences. In the western and eastern Andes in Ecuador, the young leaves are used in religious processions on Palm Sunday (Borchsenius et al. 1998, Svenning & Balslev 1998, Borchsenius & Moraes 2006). The basal portion of the peduncle of young inflorescences is edible, and is cooked and added to salads (according to an informant in Valladolid, A. Barfod et al. 60173, in scheda). The fruits are eaten by pigs, and for this reason palms are often left standing on pastures (Borchsenius et al. 1998). The wax covering the stems was formerly used in Ecuador to make candles (J. Steyermark 54130, in scheda). Pintaud & Anthelme (2008) reported the use of this species in northern Peru as a source of wood for house construction and of fruits and infructescences for animal nutrition. (Maria Jose Sanin & Gloria Geleano in Phytotaxa 34 (2011))B

Description

  • Canopy palm. Stem solitary, 10-25 m tall, 20-30 cm in diameter, usually grey, more rarely white with black leaf scars. Leaves to 4.5 m long; pinnae 75-90 on each side, regularly inserted in one plane, pendulous, the central ones 85-105 cm long and 3-5 cm wide, below with a thick, white to light brown, waxy tomentum. Inflorescences erect to arching, curved in fruit, to 250 cm long, branched 3 times. Fruit globose, 1-2 cm in diameter, finely warty, green, turning orange-red at maturity. (Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador)A
  • Stem 5-20(-25) m tall, 15-30 cm diam., white at base and turning green towards apex, covered with thin layer of wax.
    Leaves 7-15(-23), in a hemispheric crown; sheath 50-150 cm long, margins fibrous, abaxial surface covered with cream, floccose, lepidote indumentum, exhibiting a gradual transition to petiole; petiole 62-75(-85) cm long, 6.0-8.5 wide at apex, adaxial surface concave, waxy, glabrescent, margins acute, abaxial surface densely covered with persistent, cream-colored, 1-2 mm scales, with conspicuous, waxy, yellowish, 0.2-0.4 mm bases, and arranged in adjacent or interlocked rows, 0.3 mm wide; rachis 272-335 cm long, adaxially flattened in about ½ of its length, ending in a well-defined, 1-2 mm hastula-like projection, glabrescent to densely covered with light-yellow indumentum, abaxial surface covered (specially towards apex), with either persistent, yellowish, thick, waxy, 0.3-0.6 mm bases, or the whole scales appearing as white, linear threads and wooly fibres; pinnae 55-118 on each side, regularly arranged in one plane, slightly or completely pendulous, adaxial midrib glabrescent with visible scale base scars, abaxial midrib covered with persistent, linear, translucent scales, surface densely covered with persistent, padded, cream scales, shortly revealing leaf surface every 5-8 rows; the most basal filiform pinnae 20.5 cm × 0.6 cm, basal pinnae (10th from base) 39-78 × 0.6-3.0 cm, middle pinnae 89-115 × 3-4.5 cm, 1.5-4.0 cm apart, apical pinnae 13-49(-72) × 0.2-1.0 cm, the 5 apical pinnae sometimes joined at the tip.
    Staminate inflorescences 3 at one time; peduncle with scale base scars or scarce fibres of degraded scales; prophyll plus 4-6 peduncular bracts covered with very thin, translucent, fragile, scarce scales; rachis 84-123 cm long, with 65-100 branches, each subtended by a membranaceous acuminate bract, rachis and branches glabrescent, longest branches.
    Pistillate inflorescences 2-8 at one time; peduncle (60-)114-166 cm long, 3.0-3.5 cm wide at apex; prophyll 41-58 cm long, 12-14 cm wide at base; peduncular bracts 5, inserted at basal half of peduncle, 75-223 cm long, with a 6th smaller, distal one, 25-30 cm long, inserted near apex of peduncle, largest bracts 200-223 cm long; rachis 110-147 cm long, with (36-)63-85 branches, each subtended by a 0.5-2.8 cm long, membranaceous bract, longest branches 55-105 cm long; prophyll, peduncle, bracts and base of rachis covered with persistent, cream-colored scales, rachillae glabrous.
    Staminate flowers: sepals 3, triangular, acuminate, 1-2 mm long, connate in 0.3-0.5 mm (1/3-½ of total length), not reaching edge of corrolla tube; petals 3, elliptical to triangular, very long-acuminate, 5.5-8.0 mm long, including an acumen of 1.5-2.5 mm long, connate in 1.3-2.0 mm; stamens (9-)10-11(-12), 2-6 antisepalous stamens, and 6-9(-10) antipetalous stamens, filaments 1.0-1.5 mm long, anthers 2-3 mm long, anther connective not projected.
    Pistillate flowers: sepals 3, broadly triangular-acuminate, 1.0-1.5 mm long, connate in 0.6-1.0 mm (½-2/3 of total length), not reaching edge of corolla tube; petals 3, elliptical-acuminate, 5.0-6.5 mm long, including an acumen of 2-3 mm long, connate up to 1.2-2.0 mm; staminodes 9-11, 1 antisepalous, 2-3 antipetalous, filaments 1 mm long, abortive anthers 0.9-1.2 mm long, pistil green, trifid, 2-3 mm diam.
    Fruits globose, turning red when ripe, 1.3-2.2 cm diam., exocarp densely covered with prominent, irregular and acute bulges; fruiting perianth with very broadly triangular sepals of 1.0-1.5 mm long, connate in 0.4-0.5, lobes not reaching or barely reaching edge of corolla tube, petals elliptical-acuminate, widened at base, connate in 0.7-1.0 mm. (Maria Jose Sanin & Gloria Geleano in Phytotaxa 34 (2011))B

Materials Examined

  • ECUADOR. El Oro: forests up from Paccha, 1920 m, 26 August 1943, J. A. Steyermark 54130 (fr.) (F). Napo: Road Quito-Tena, via Baeza, 1860 m, 3 August 1984, C. Dodson et al. 14843 (fr.) (AAU, MO); Cosanga, Mr. H. Erazo?s Hacienda, secondary forest bosque near pastures, 0°37' S 77°52' W, 1900 m, 17 August 1992, Paredes & Erazo 100 (pist.fl.) ( QCA), Paredes & Erazo 101 (st.fl.) (QCA), Paredes & Erazo 102 (st.fl.) ( QCA); Road Baeza-Tena, km 13,5 km before Cosanga, pastures along road, 0°32'16"S 77°52'45'W, 2000 m, 7 January 2004, Borchsenius et al. 625 (immat.fr.) (AAU). Zamora-Chinchipe: Road Valladolid-Palanda , Km 2, 79° 08' W; 4° 34' S, 1900 m, 22 January 1987, A. Barfod et al. 60173 (fr.) (AAU, COL, MECN, QCA); km 1.6, pastures, steep slopes along road plus shrubs, 04°33' 43" S 79°08'22"W, 1600 m, 11 January 2004, Borchsenius et al. 639 (immat.fr. from ground) (AAU). Pichincha:Road Quito?Puerto Quito, on deviation towards Mindo, 00° 02' S, 78° 45' W, 1700 m, 10 May 1986, H. Balslev et al. 62089 (st.fl.) (AAU). PERU. Amazonas: Rodríguez de Mendoza, Mariscal Benavides, Izcuchaca, 06°19'S 77°31' W, 1880 m, August 29 1998. R. Vásquez & J. Campos 25311 (immat.fr.) (NY, MO). Huánuco: Provincia Leoncio Prado, Distrito Rupa-Rupa, Carretera a Aguaytia, en la divisoria por la entrada de la propiedad de la UNAS, 9°12´5.7" S 75°48'55" W, 1683 m, 6 July 2005, B. Millán et al. 1400 (immat.fr.) (USM). Pasco: Province Oxapampa, Río Yanachaga drainage, Hacienda Yanachaga, 10°32' S 75°32' W, 2280 m. 27 May 1983. D. N. Smith & G. Pretel 4197 (immat.fr.) (NY, MO); Río Yamaquizu Valley, Los Chacos, 2-9 km from the Oxapampa-La Merced road, 10°34'S 75°22'W, 2040-2160 m, 29 May 1883, D.N. Smith 4215 (mm.fr.) (NY, MO); Oxapampa, outskirts of town, 11 September 1998, A. Henderson et al. 3019 (pist.fl.) (NY); Parque Nacional Yanachaga Chemillén, parte Baja de la Quebrada San Alberto, 10°32' S 72° 21' W, 1900-2150 m, 27 March 2003. A. Monteagudo et al. 4834 (immat.fr.) (NY, MO); 20 Km NE of Villa Rica on Road to Cacazu, 10°45'S 75° 10' W, 1600 m, 4 July 1988, Gentry et al. 63244 (immat.fr.) (USM, MO). (Maria Jose Sanin & Gloria Geleano in Phytotaxa 34 (2011))B

Use Record

  • Ceroxylon echinulatum Galeano: Ceroxylon echinulatum (palma) (Fig. 2) is a solitary palm with red spherical fruits (2 cm diameter) with edible seeds, which are roasted or cooked before eating. This endemic Amazonian palm was found in humid forest and tolerated in maize fields in Loja province at around 1300 m elevation. (Van den Eynden, V., E. Cueva, and O. Cabrera, Edible palms of Southern Ecuador. 2004)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Human FoodBeveragesSeedsMestizoN/AEcuador
  • Ceroxylon echinulatum Galeano: Component of agroforestry systems. Wood (construction, Cash crop and Domestic). (…). With the disappearance of natural forest, the need for wood, especially for construction became acute in the upper Urumba valley. In order to supply wood, timber species were introduced (Cedrela odorata, Schizolobium amazonicum, Eucalyptus spp.), but local wild species, in particular Ceroxylon echinulatum, were also put into cultivation. Ceroxylon species are very much appreciated for construction in the Andes, but are most often used destructively for this purpose, eventually eliminating natural populations. Only when this happens, the option of cultivation sounds attractive to local people. The rarity of Ceroxylon plants also means an important increase in stem price, which makes cultivation a good business. (…). (Pintaud, J.-C., and F. Anthelme, Ceroxylon echinulatum in an Agroforestry System of Northern Peru. 2008)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    EnvironmentalAgroforestryEntire plantMestizoN/APeru
    ConstructionHousesStemMestizoN/APeru
  • Ceroxylon echinulatum Galeano: Los tallos se usan para la construcción de casas y de cercas. Las hojas jóvenes se cortan y usan com,o "ramo bendito" durante la Semana Santa. La parte basar del pedúnculo de las inflorescencias jóvenes es comestible,(…). Las semillas son apreciadas como buen alimento para engordar cerdos, los cuales comen los frutos caídos al suelo, al pie de las palmas en época de cosecha; por esta razón, las palmas son protegidas en algunas zonas. (Galeano, G., Las palmas de la región de Araracuara. 1992)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionHousesStemNot identifiedN/AEcuador
    CulturalRitualEntire leafNot identifiedN/AEcuador
    EnvironmentalFencesStemNot identifiedN/AEcuador
    Animal FoodFodderSeedsNot identifiedN/AEcuador
    EnvironmentalAgroforestryEntire plantNot identifiedN/AColombia
  • Ceroxylon echinulatum Galeano: The leaves are used for weaving ceremonial baskets used during the easter time and also sold for this purpose. The wax covering on the stem is scraped off and used for this purpose. The wax covering on the stem is scraped off and used for candles. The basal part of the peduncle of young inflorescences is edible, cooked and mixed with other vegetables. The seeds are eaten by pigs, and palms are left and protected in pasture so that the pigs can feed on the fruits when thay fall; the stem is also used for fence poles. (Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Human FoodFoodInflorescenceNot identifiedN/AEcuador
    FuelLightingStemNot identifiedN/AEcuador
    Animal FoodFodderSeedsNot identifiedN/AEcuador
    CulturalRitualEntire leafNot identifiedN/AEcuador
    EnvironmentalFencesStemNot identifiedN/AEcuador
    EnvironmentalAgroforestryEntire plantNot identifiedN/AEcuador