Ceroxylon peruvianum Galeano, Sanín & K.Mejia, Revista Peru. Biol. 15 (Supl.1):65 (2008)

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Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
Eastern slopes of the northern Peruvian Andes, in humid premontane to montane forest at 1500-2300 m, in areas currently heavily deforested to establish agricultural activities, where it remains as isolated individuals on forest fragments or in the middle of the farms. (Maria Jose Sanin & Gloria Geleano in Phytotaxa 34 (2011))A




  • Stem 8-12 m tall, 20-26 cm diameter, silver to light grey with thin layer of wax.
    Leaves 13-21, in a hemispheric crown; sheath 130-168 cm long, 5-7 cm wide at apex, with scarcely fibrous margins, covered with white tomentum; petiole 25-60 cm long, 3.5-8.0 cm wide, flat to convex, green and with scarce indumentum above, convex and densely covered with white to light brown tomentum below; rachis 240-362 cm long, adaxially flattened in ca. 2/3 of its length, abaxially covered with thick, white tomentum; pinnae 96-140 on each side, irregularly arranged in groups of 2-6, inserted in several planes, usually the proximal pinnae ascendant, the distal descendent, pinnae stiff up to the middle of their length, then pendulous, apex slightly asymmetric, midrib prominent, adaxial surface glabrous, glossy, dark olive green, abaxial surface covered with thin, white to yellowish indumentum, sometimes revealing the pinnae surface in between files; lowermost, filiform pinnae 7.0-41.5 × 0.2-1.0 cm, basal pinnae (10th pair, from base) 37-51 × 0.8-1.3 cm, middle pinnae 63-93 × 3.5-5.0 cm, apical pinnae 21-46 × 0.7-3.0 cm, 2-9 apical pinnae united along margins.
    Staminate inflorescences: peduncle 48-67 cm long, 4 cm wide at base; peduncular bracts 149.0-169.5 × 23-27 cm; rachis 81-102 cm long, with 72-99 branches, the longest branches up to 42 cm long.
    Pistillate inflorescences 144 cm in the fruiting stage; peduncle 62-90 cm long, 5.7 cm wide at apex; prophyll 31 cm long; peduncular bracts up to 118-220 cm long; rachis 77-134 cm, with 61-78 first order branches, the longest ones 79 cm long.
    Staminate flowers: sepals 3, ovate, 1 mm long, connate for ½ their length, lobes reaching ½ to the total height of the corolla tube; petals 3, ovate-acuminate, 4-7 mm long, including a 1 mm acumen, connate up to 1.0-1.5 mm (1/6-1/4 of their length); stamens 12-15, 3-9 episepalous and 6-9 epipetalous, filaments 1.0-1.5 mm long, anther 2.0-2.2 mm long, round at apex.
    Pistillate flowers not seen.
    Fruits globose, 2.0-2.3 cm long, 2.0-2.2 cm wide, green turning red when ripe, mature exocarp densely covered with irregular and acute bulges; fruiting perianth with a persistent calyx about 1 mm long, reaching ½ the total height of the corolla tube; petals 4-5 mm long, connate for up to 2 mm (1/3-½ their length).
    Seeds ca. 1.5 cm diam. (Maria Jose Sanin & Gloria Geleano in Phytotaxa 34 (2011))A

Materials Examined

  • PERU. Amazonas: Province Bongará, District San Carlos, cultivated in the town of San Carlos, 05°57'51.1" S, 77°56'50.4" W, 1830 m, 15 November 2007, B. Millán et al. 1497 (mat.fr.) (USM); cultivated in the town of San Carlos, 05°57'57.8" S 77°56'37.2" W, 1880 m, 15 November 2007, B. Millán et al. 1498 (st.fl.) (AAU, COL, NY, P, USM); same locality, 15 November 2007, B. Millán et al. 1499 (immat.fr.) (AAU, COL, NY, P, USM); Province Bongará, District Jazán, cultivated near way to San Pablo, Pedro Ruiz road Chachapoyas, 06°03'31.8" S, 77°55'38.28" W, 1569 m, 16 March 2006, B. Millán & J.C. Pintaud 1354 (immat.fr.) (USM); same locality, 16 March 2006, B. Millán & J.C. Pintaud 1356 (seedling) (USM). Province Bongará, road from Pedro Ruiz to Moyobamba, km 12, October 1990, F. Kahn and F. Moussa 2704 (immat.fr.) (USM). Province Bongará, Road Pedro Ruiz to Moyobamba, km 340-350, Buenos Aires, 5° 45'S 77° 47'W, 2300 m, 30 August 1983, D. Smith & S. Vásquez 4854 (mat.fr.) (MO, USM); District Yambrasbamba, Anexo Vilcaniza, por la carretera destapada que va a Corosha, a 3 km de la carretera Pedro Ruiz-Tarapoto, 05°47'11,1" S 77°52'51,2" W, 1702 m, 21 October 2009, M.J. Sanín, N. Vega y S.L. Vega-Güivín 05 (fr.) (USM, COL). (Maria Jose Sanin & Gloria Geleano in Phytotaxa 34 (2011))A