Dictyocaryum lamarckianum (Mart.) H.Wendl., Bot. Zeitung (Berlin) 21: 131 (1863)

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Distribution

Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
Boliviapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)C
Colombiapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)C
Ecuadorpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)C
Panamápresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)C
Venezuelapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)C
Eastern Panama south through the Andes of Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia, in montane forests between 1000 and 2000 m. (Henderson, A. 1990. Introduction and the Iriarteinae. Flora Neotropica Monograph 53.)B

Patchily distributed from Panama to Bolivia along the Andes, in premontane moist to wet forest, often very abundant in a certain (variable) altitudinal range. In Ecuador it is found on both sides of the Andes. (Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador)A

Discussion

  • Closely related to Iriartea which it resembles in flower structure and protandrous flowering pattern. (Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador)A
  • This widespread species shows not unexpected variation in morphology, which has led to a number of species being proposed.

    The type of Dictyocaryum lamarckianum consists of two seeds. This species is interpreted from the type, the description, the description and illustration of Martius (1847), and from recent collections from near the type locality in Bolivia (Henderson & Solomon 521, 531, 533, Solomon 9540). Martius (1847) incorrectly described and figured the seeds as having a lateral embryo, whereas the type clearly has a sub-basal embryo, as pointed out by Wendland (1863). Also, Martius' (1847) illustration of Iriartea orbigniana, figured on the same plate as that of D. lamarckianum, contains a pinna clearly belonging to D. lamarckianum.

    The type of Dictyocaryum schultzei consists of one large hanging sheet with a leaf section only. A paratype at B (Schultze 483) consists of a similar sheet with leaf section and a few pistillate flowers. Dictyocaryum schultzei is interpreted from the type, paratype, the description, and from recent collections from at or near the type locality (Henderson & Bernal 167, Romero-Castaneda 8257). Burret distinguished it from D. lamarckianum by its ventricose stem and smaller seeds. However, D. lamarckianum, as interpreted from specimens for which at least three stem diameter measurements (base, middle, apex) have been given (Henderson 98, 535, Henderson & Bernal 127,137,139,167, Balslev 4293, Balslev & Henderson 60671, 60664), always has a more or less ventricose stem, thus this character is not considered significant. Burret described seeds of D. schultzei as being globose and 1.8 cm diam., and considered these smaller than those of D. lamarckianum. But Burret was using Martius' (1847) illustration for comparison, where seeds of D. lamarckianum are drawn as 2.5 cm in diam. This is clearly an exaggeration, because the actual type seeds, not seen by Burret, are 1.8-2 cm in diam.

    The holotype of Dictyocaryum platysepalum is not at B, and is presumed destroyed. No isotypes are known. The neotype comes from the type locality. Dictyocaryum platysepalum is interpreted from the description and the neotype. Burret distinguished D. platysepalum from D. lamarckianum by its larger seeds, broadly ovate-elliptic, 2.5 x 2.2 cm, and with an equatorial constriction. Seeds preserved in alcohol from the neotype are globose, 2.5 x 2.2 cm, and lack an equatorial constriction. The differences between the seeds described by Barret, and those from the neotype are probably due to an artifact. Dictyocaryum platysepalum agrees with D. lamarckianum in all other respects.

    The holotype of Dictyocaryum superbum in not at B, and is presumed destroyed. No isotypes are known. The neotype comes from the type locality. Dictyocaryum superbum is interpreted from the description and the neotype. Burret distinguished it from D. lamarckianum by its smaller seeds and swollen stem. Burret wrote that the seeds of the type were destroyed, but those from a second specimen (Schultze-Rhonhof 3027) were uninjured. These were described as globose, equatorially constricted, and 2.1 cm in diameter. Unripe seeds, preserved in alcohol, from the neo-type, are globose, 1.5 x 1.5 cm, and lack an equatorial constriction. Neither this seed size, or stem swelling, are considered significant characters with which to maintain D. superbum.

    The type of Dictyocaryum globifemm consists of 10 sheets, containing relatively complete material. Dugand did not distinguish his new species from any of those previously described. Interpretation of D. globiferum rests on the description, the type, and a recent collection (Henderson & Bernal 127) from near the type locality. The type is similar in all details, within reasonable bounds of variation, to Henderson & Bernal 127, and both are similar in all details, within the same bounds, to specimens previously mentioned as representing D. lamarckianum.

    In general, Dictyocaryum lamarckianum represents an uniform, but quantitatively variable, aspect. The inflorescence bud is almost always erect, and this is the most characteristic feature of the species, distinguishing it from the other two species. (Henderson, A. 1990. Introduction and the Iriarteinae. Flora Neotropica Monograph 53.)B

Common Name

    Uses

    Description

    • Canopy palm. Stem solitary, erect, to 25 m tall and 40 cm in diameter, often swollen in the central part. Base supported by a 1-2 m tall, dense cone of black stilroots, these with numerous short, whitish root spines. Leaves 3-6, to 5 m long, strongly bushy; pinnae numerous, longitudinally split, jagged at the apex, silverish green below. Inflorescence to 2 m long, erect, with numerous long, pendulous branches, creamish yellow in flower. Fruit greenish yellow, globose, ca. 3 cm in diameter. (Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador)A
    • Stem more or less ventricose, to 25 m tall, 12-40 cm in diam. at base, 15-50 cm in diam. at swelling, 12-40 cm in diam. at apex, gray, smooth, with nodes obscure and internodes to 25 cm long; stilt roots to 150, nearly vertical, closely spaced, branched near or below ground level, to 1.5 m x 4-7 cm, longitudinally ridged with brown flaky scales, brown at first but becoming gray or black, with longitudinal lines of blunt spines. Leaves 3-6, stiffly spreading; sheaths forming a compact crownshaft, usually swollen at base by presence of inflorescence bud, 1.2-2.6 m long, glaucous, gray-green, outer surface with deciduous brown trichomes; petiole 7-75 cm long (including narrow, apical, petiolar part of sheath), 11-12 cm in diam. at base, 6-9 cm in diam. at apex, proximally rounded abaxially and shallowly grooved adaxially, from middle upwards terete, green, densely light brown-tomentose, glabrescent; rachis ridged adaxially, rounded abaxially, 2.7-5.0 m long, 6-9 cm in diam. proximally, tapering to filiform free apex, densely brown-tomentose adaxially, densely whitish-brown-tomentose abaxially; pinnae 3 5-54 per side of rachis, subop-posite, asymmetrically oblanceolate with blunt praemorse apex, gray-green glabrous adaxially, gray-white waxy abaxially with decidous hyaline trichomes, occasionally abaxially with lines 3 mm wide of dense white tomentum running parallel to veins, split to the base into 2-14 stiff segments inserted at different angles and radiating in different planes; proximal pinna split into 2-5 segments, proximal segment up to 67 cm long and 1 cm wide at mid-point; middle pinnae split into 7-15 segments, proximal segment 75-95 cm long and 5-8 cm wide at mid-point, distal segment 70-80 cm long and 1 cm wide at mid-point; apical pinna entire, flabellate, up to 20 cm long and 2.5 cm wide at mid-point. Inflorescence erect in bud and at anthesis, to 3 m long in bud; peduncle terete, straight, 35-80 cm long, half encircling stem at base and then abruptly narrowing to ca. 10 cm in diam. and tapering to 2.5-6 cm in diam. at apex, green, at first densely brown-tomentose, at anthesis with 8-9 bract scars; prophyll inserted at base of peduncle, caducous, ancipitous, coriaceous, tapering to apex, splitting apically and then longitudinally; peduncular bracts 7-8, the first three inserted 2-7 cm apart, 15-40 cm long, similar to prophyll, the remaining four woody, with long non-splitting apex, 1-2 m long, occasionally an incomplete eighth peduncular bract present, this strongly folded under at base; prophyll and peduncular bracts green and densely tomentose on outer surface, glabrous and greenish white within; rachis 59-180 cm long, 2.5-6 cm in diam. at base and tapering toward apex; with similar tomentum to that of peduncle; rachillae 65-170, glabrous, spreading, cream-colored at anthesis, proximal ones branched into 3-9 rachillae, with a basal flattened sterile section to 25 cm long, 75-100 cm long proximally, 16-22 cm long distally, 2 mm in diam. at mid-point at anthesis (thickening to 4 mm in fruit), each subtended by a strongly cucullate bract from 3 cm long proximally to virtually absent distally; triads spirally arranged, 3-5 mm apart, with vestigial bracts; flowers proximally in triads, distally staminate in pairs or solitary, occasionally an inflorescence all staminate, yellow or cream-colored; staminate flowers 1 mm long; sepals depressed-ovate, 1x3 mm, very shortly connate proximally, imbricate, gibbous; petals lanceolate, 7 x 2 mm, very shortly connate proximally and ad-nate to receptacle, valvate; stamens six; filaments 1-2 mm long, adnate proximally to base of petals, abruptly tapering; anthers 5-6 mm long, sub-basifixed, latrorse; pistillode very short, blunt, 3-lobed; pollen with clavate or clavate-rugulate exine; pistillate flowers 2-3 mm long, surrounded by two vestigial bracteoles; sepals depressed-ovate, 2x2 mm, free, imbricate, fleshy; petals ovate, 3 mm long, 2 mm wide at base, briefly connate proximally, free and valvate distally; staminodes six, dentiform, 0.5 mm long; stigmas sessile, triangular, 0.5 mm long, erect at anthesis; ovary glabrous, 3-locular with usually only one ovule developing; fruit more or less globose (occasionally irregular when two seeds present), 2.5-2.8 x 2.3-3 cm, stigmatic scar sub-basal to lateral; epicarp glabrous, greenish-yellow at maturity and splitting irregularly; mesocarp 3-4 mm thick, white, with outer layer of sclereids and inner layer of tannins and fibers; endocarp papery; seed globose to oblong-ellipsoid, 1.7-2.5 x 1.6-2.2 cm, basally attached; raphe branches reticulate, spreading; hilum rounded; embryo basal; eophyll bifid. (Henderson, A. 1990. Introduction and the Iriarteinae. Flora Neotropica Monograph 53.)B

    Materials Examined

    • PANAMA. DARIEN: Serrania de Pirre, 1130-1200 m, 10-20 Jul 1977 (fr), Folsom 4316 (BH, MO, NY); 29 Dec 1972, Gentry & Clewell 7019 (MO); 18 Jan 1985 (fl, fr), Henderson & Con-traires 98 (NY); Cerro Tacarcuna, Cerro Mali base camp nr. Colombian border, 1400m, 21 Jan 1975 (fr), Gentry & Mori 13777 (BH, MO).?COLOMBIA. ANTIOQUIA: Mun. Guatape, Vereda Santa Rita, 1900 m, 15 Feb 1985 (fl, fr), Henderson & Bolivar 137 (COL, JAUM, NY); Mun. Frontino, rd. from Nutibara to La Blanquita, 950 m, 17 Feb 1985 (fl, fr), Henderson & Bernal 139 (COL, JAUM, NY); 19 Mar 1982 (fl, fr), Bernal & Galeano 260 (COL). CAQUETA: Between Palmira and Gabinete, 20 Sep 1926 (fl), Juzepczuk 6551 (LE). HUILA-CAQUETA BORDER: 18 km above Algeciras on rd. to Aguas Claras, 2050 m, 8 Feb 1985 (fl, fr), Henderson & Bernal 127 (COL, JAUM, NY). HUILA: La Resina, 24 Sep 1926 (fl), Juzepczuk 6671 (LE). MAGDALENA: Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, 3 km beyond San Pedro de la Sierra, 1450 m, 2 Mar 1985 (fl, fr), Henderson & Bernal 167 (COL, JAUM, NY); Mun. de Cienaga, from San Andres to Guandusukaka, 1300-1400 m, 3 Apr 1960 (fr), Romero-Castaneda 8257 (COL, MO). VALLE: Below new hydroelectric dam at Anchicaya, 11 Sep 1970 (fl), Moore et al. 9870 (BH). VENEZUELA. TACHIRA: Cerro Las Minas, bordering Quebrada Las Minas, 18 km SE of Santa Ana, 7°36'N, 72°13'W, 1250 m, 29 Jul 1979 (fl, fr), Steyermark & Liesner 118959 (BH, MO, VEN). ECUADOR. COTOPAXI: 20 km E of La Mansa on rd. to Latacunga from Quevedo via Pilalo, 00°53'S, 79°04'W, 1100 m, 6 Apr 1986, Balslev, Henderson & Kristensen 62028 (AAU, NY, QCA); Tenefuerste, Rio Pilalo, km 52-53 Quevedo-Latacunga rd., 750-1300 m, 21 Feb 1982 (fr), Dodson & Gentry 12777 (MO). MORONA-SANTIAGO: Rd. from Macas to Alshi, 1300-1400 m, 15 Jul 1985, Balslev & Henderson 60664 (NY, QCA). NAPO: 6 km NE of El Chaco where the Quito-Lago Agrio rd. crosses Rio Oyacachi, 00°20'S, 77°49'W, 1700 m, 1 May 1983 (fl), Balslev et al. 4293 (AAU, NY). PERU. PASCO: Oxapampa-Cerro de Pasco rd., 20 km W of Oxapampa, 10°40'S, 75°50'W, 1980-2000 m, 3 Feb 1983 (fl, fr), Gentry et al. 39921 (BH, MO); Province Oxapampa, 10 km beyond Oxapampa on rd. to Paucartambo, ca. 1800 m, 15 Dec 1985 (fl, fr), Henderson 535 (NY, USM); Province Oxapampa, 2-3 km SE of Oxapampa, 10°34'S, 75°24'W, 1860 m, 12 Dec 1982 (fr), Smith & Brack 2941 (NY); Province Oxapampa, Oxapampa-Paucartambo rd., 18 km from Oxapampa, 10°38'S, 75°28'W, 1970 m, 22 May 1982 (fr), Smith & Pretel 1655 (NY); Province Oxapampa, Palmazu, 10°32'S, 75°23'W, 1900-2300 m, 5 Oct 1984 (fr), Smith et al. 8716 (NY). SAN MARTIN: Province Rioja, Pedro Ruiz-Moyobamba rd., km 384, Campamento Garcia, 05°45'S, 77°43'W, 2250 m, 29 Aug 1983, Smith 48411 (NY).?BOLIVIA. LA PAZ: Province Nor Yungas: 10 km N of Caranavi on rd. from town, 15°40'S, 67°39'W, 1500 m, 6 Dec 1985 (fl, fr), Henderson & Solomon 521 (NY); 38 km beyond Caranavi on rd. to Palos Blancos, 15°35'S, 67°39'W, 1600 m, 6 Dec 1985, Henderson & Solomon 531 (NY); 14 km NW of San Pedro on rd. through Incahuara-Mejillones, along trail to 12 de Octubre, 15°58'S, 67°37'W, 1300 m, 7 Dec 1985, Henderson & Solomon 533 (NY); 12-14 Feb 1983 (fl, fr), Solomon 9540 (NY). (Henderson, A. 1990. Introduction and the Iriarteinae. Flora Neotropica Monograph 53.)B

    Use Record