Wallichia caryotoides Roxb., Pl. Coromandel 3: 91 (1820)

Primary tabs

http://media.e-taxonomy.eu/palmae/photos/palm_tc_214126_1.jpg

Distribution

Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
Bangladeshpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
China South-Centralpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
East Himalayapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Myanmarpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Thailandpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Bangladesh, China (Yunnan), India (Arunachal Pradesh, Tripura), Myanmar (Kachin, Mon, Rakhine, Sagaing), and Thailand (North). (Henderson, A.J., A Revision of Wallichia (Palmae) in Taiwania 52(1). 2007)A

Discussion

  • Roxburgh’s (1820) description and illustration of Wallichia caryotoides is a mixture of two species – referred to in this paper as W. caryotoides and W. oblongifolia. The text describes an acaulescent palm (as in W. oblongifolia). The illustration, plate 295, shows pinnae with lobed margins and pendulous, condensed staminate inflorescences (as in W. caryotoides), but the detailed drawings of the staminate flowers, with six stamens, and fruits are of W. oblongifolia. The part of plate 295 showing pinnae and inflorescences is therefore chosen as lectotype. The confusion between these two species probably occurred because they appear similar, and both were cultivated in the Calcutta Botanical Garden (Griffith, 1845), where Roxburgh was superintendent from 1793 to 1813. Griffith (1845, p. 488), wrote that the two species had been “so strangely mistaken” for each other. The confusion was perpetuated by Martius (1845). The isotype of W. mooreana and a paratype (Henry 12331 - cited by Basu (1983)) are identical to other specimens of W. caryotoides. Both Basu (1983) and Beccari (1910 - describing W. gracilis) cited Henry 12331 as a paratype. One probable reason for this confusion is that the apical leaves, subtending inflorescences, are smaller and have narrower pinnae than those leaves from further down the stem. These apical leaves are often collected, and indeed appear different from other leaves. In Wallichia caryotoides, stems most often have terminal pistillate inflorescences and lateral staminate ones, although sometimes stems appear to have only either pistillate or staminate inflorescences. Pistillate inflorescences appear to bear solitary pistillate flowers only, and staminate ones paired staminate flowers only. (Henderson, A.J., A Revision of Wallichia (Palmae) in Taiwania 52(1). 2007)A

Biology And Ecology

Common Name

Description

  • Stems clustered, to 3 m tall, 2-10 cm diameter, Stems bearing staminate and pistillate inflorescences about equal in length. Leaves 4-7, spirally arranged; sheaths disintegrating into black fibers, with a prominent, fibrous ligule at the apex; petioles 0.8-1.5 m long; rachis 0.9-1.5 m long; pinnae 8-12 per side of rachis, regularly and alternately arranged except for clustered proximal 2-3 pinnae, spreading in the same plane, pinnae from middle of leaf 25-49 cm long, 5-11 cm wide at widest point, widest near the middle, lanceolate, with two pronounced lobes. Inflorescences subtended by smaller leaves, unisexual, staminate and pistillate borne on the same or separate stems, the pistillate terminal the staminate lateral; staminate inflorescences 40-50 cm long, erect; prophyll 4-7 cm long; peduncle 15-30 cm long; peduncular bracts 6-8, sheathing the peduncle; rachillae 21-30, 12.5-20.5 cm long, 1.5-3 mm diameter, glabrous; staminate flowers 5-6 mm long; sepals 1-2 mm long, connate into a cupular calyx; petals 5-6 mm long, yellow; stamens 11-16; pistillate inflorescences 40-50 cm long, erect; prophyll to 6.5 cm long; peduncle 23-24 cm long; peduncular bracts several, sheathing the peduncle; rachillae 7-17, 10-20 cm long, 2.5-4 mm diameter; pistillate flowers to 2.5 mm long at anthesis; sepals 1 mm long; petals 2 mm long; gynoecium 2 mm long; fruits ovoid to ellipsoid, to 1.7 cm long, to 0.8 cm diameter, red. (Henderson, A.J., A Revision of Wallichia (Palmae) in Taiwania 52(1). 2007)A

Materials Examined

  • BANGLADESH. Chittagong, no date, Hooker & Thomson s. n. (A, K, P); Seetakoond, 12 Jan 1857, Hooker & Thomson s. n. (K). MYANMAR. Kachin: Jambu Ridge Wildlife Corridor, 25°59’N, 96°40’E, 228 m, 11 Jan 2005, Henderson et al. 3119 (MAND, NY, RAF, RANG); Ledo road, between Mile 22 Camp and Mile 8 Camp, between Namyung and Shinbwiyang, 26°48’N, 96°12’E, 600 m, 26 Jan 2005, Henderson et al. 3154 (K, MAND, NY, RAF, RANG); Sumpra Bum, 3000 ft., 15 Feb 1953, Kingdom-Ward 10533 (A). Mon: Kyaikto, Golden Rock, road from pagoda to base camp, 17°24’N, 97°04’E, 1 Nov 2005, Henderson et al. 3198 (NY, RAF); Kyaikto, E of village, 900 m, 22 Nov 2003, Hodel 1965 (NY). Rakhine: Ngapali Township, 3 km E of Mya Bin village, 100 m, 15 Mar 2003, Hodel & Aye Pe 1937 (NY). Sagaing: Ledo road, N of Namyung, 26°59’N, 96°11’E, 338 m, 19 Jan 2005, Henderson et al. 3139 (K, MAND, NY, RAF, RANG); Ledo road, N of Namyung, 26°59’N, 96°11’E, 428 m, 19 Jan 2005, Henderson et al. 3142 (MAND, NY, RAF, RANG). CHINA. Yunnan: Xishuanbanna, Kun Ge Luo, 17 Mar 1957, Anon 7226 (KUN); Luo road, Do Liu Dao Ban, 27 Apr 1957, Anon 8169 (KUN); Xishuanbanna, Menglunmanlun, 16 Sep 1959, Anon 59-13042 (KUN); Xishuanbanna, Menglun, Mengla, 16 Sep 1952, Anon 59-13042 (KUN); Xishuanbanna, Mengla, Man Na Electricity Station, 20 Mar 1984, Chen 18992 (HITBC); Xishuanbanna, Mengla, Yi Wu, Zhu Shi river, 30 Apr 1984, Chen 14289 (HITBC); YinJiang, Xi Ma, Na Bang Ba, 26 Nov 1981, Chen 18941 (HITBC); Ning Jiang, Meng Wang, 7 Dec 1951, Feng 14200 (KUN); SiMao, 15 km S along road to Gali, ca. 1200 m, 13 Apr 1955, Feyerodov 480 (NY); SiMao, no date, Henry 12331 (A, K, NY, US); SiMao, Cai Yan River, 14 Jul 2000, Yuan 5261 (HITBC); Xishuanbanna, Jinuo mountain, Long Pa, 21°59’N, 101°05’E, 1278 m, 6 Jul 2003, Henderson et al. 3100 (KUN, NY); Xishuanbanna, Mengla county, 3-4 km from Manzhuang, 21°24’N, 101°37’E, 9 Jul 2003, Henderson et al. 3106 (KUN, NY); road from Labang to Liuding Tongbiguan, 24°06’N, 97°05’E, 17 Jul 2003, Henderson et al. 3112 (KUN, NY); Mengtze, no date, Henry 10411 (K, NY, US); Menglun, Botanical Garden Electrical Station, 1 Sep 1982, Koyama 402 (KUN); Cang Yuan, Nanla commune, Da He Di, 28 Jun 1974, Li 12550 (HITBC); Mengla, Meng Xing River, 24 Dec 1977, Li 20858 (HITBC); Jing-Dong, Man Chwan, 15 Jun 1940, Li 2971 (KUN); Xishuanbanna, Man Sha, 17 Apr 1959, L01617 (KUN); Ping Bing Yao Shan Qu, Ke Zi, Ge Niao, 21 Apr 1954, Mao 3954 (KUN); Jiang Cheng, Jia He, Ming Zi Sha, 8 Nov 1989, Pei 772 (KUN); Menglian, Mang Ma, 24 Feb 1978, Pei 14234 (HITBC); Yin Jiang, Tong Bi Guan, 1 Sep 1976, Pei 14215 (HITBC); Xishuanbanna, Mengla, 2 May 1980, Pei 18938 (HITBC); Yi-Wu, Mengla, 20 Dec 1958, Research Team 10408 (KUN); YinJiang, on the way to NaBang Ba, 3 Nov 1974, Tao 13106 (HITBC); Xishuanbanna, Jiang Hong, 29 Jul 1977, Tao 15695 (HITBC); Mengla River, 28 Apr 1992, Tao 45498 (HITBC); Mengla, Meng Kang, 13 Apr 1986, Tong 24972 (HITBC); He Kau, Si Tiao Ban, 14 Apr 1953, Wang 31 (KUN); Tsang-Yuan, Apr 1936, Wang 73269 (A); Fo-Hai, 1500 m, 1 May 1936, Wang 74281 (A, KUN); Sheau-Meng-Yeang, Che-Li Hsien, 1 Sep 1936, Wang 75829 (A, KUN); Ban-Chiou-Chian, Che-li, 840 m, Oct 1936, Wang 79729 (A); Xichou Fa Dou, 15 Dec 1939, Wang 85726 (KUN); Mianning, Mayetiu, 1350 m, 24 Sep 1938, Yü 17710 (A); Xishuanbanna, Mengla, Shang Yong, 15 Oct 1974, Yang 10952 (HITBC); Xishuanbanna, Menglun, Man Lun, 9 Jun 1967, Yunnan Group 3 (KUN); Lin Cang, First District, Ma Yi Dui, 24 Aug 1957, Xin 334 (KUN). THAILAND. Chiang Mai: Doi Pae Poe, about 90 m NW of Tak, 17°17’N, 98°25’E, 1380 m, 14 Mar 1968, Hansen & Smitinand12912 (BKF, K); Doi Setup, 1000 m, 15 Nov 1997, Hodel & Vatcharakorn 1785 (BH); same locality, 31 Oct 1930, Kerr 3278 (BK, K); same locality, 26 Aug 1991, Pooma 515 (BKF); same locality, 26 Apr 1958, Sorensen et al. 3043 (AAU, BKF); same locality, 19 Sep 1958, Sorensen et al. 5130 (BKF); N of Chiang Mai at Chiang Dao, 600-1000 m, 17 Nov 1997, Hodel & Vatcharakorn 1793 (BH); Khun Awn, 900-1000 m, 30 Jan 1924, Kerr 4724 (AAU, BK, K); Bam Mae Kam, 1050 m, 2 Dec 1990, Maxwell 90-1297 (A); Doi Chiang Dao, Doi Chiang Dao National Park, 14 Nov 1986, Smith 22 (K); Inthanon National Park, 950 m, 23 Jul 1988, Phengklai et al. 6861 (BKF). Chaing Rai: Doi Tung, 1000 m, 13 Nov 1997, Hodel & Vatcharakorn 1783 (BH). Khamphaeng Phet: Mae Wong National Park, 16°05’N, 99°04’E, 1300 m, Parnell et al. 95-377 (K). Mae Hong Kong: Khao Chi Chong, 1500-1800 m, 9 Jun 1995, Niyomdham et al. 4286 (BKF). Nan: Doi Phu Kha, 30 km E of Pua, 1400-1600 m, 10 Nov 1997, Hodel & Vatcharakorn 1775 (BH); Doi Phu Kha, 55 km E of Pua, 1000 m, 11 Nov 1997, Hodel & Vatcharakorn 1780 (BH); Doi Phu Kha National Park, 26 km from Pua, 1150 m, 19°25’N, 101°06’E, 1150 m, 17 Aug 1995, Parnell et al. 95-165 (K); Doi Phu Kha National Park, 19°12’N, 101°04’E, 1400 m, 23 Sep 1996, Boyce 1129 (BKF, K). Phitsanulok: Phu Hin Rong Kla, 40 km E of Nakhon Thai, Rom Glao waterfall, 17°05’N, 101°07’E, 1100 m, 11 Dec 1990, Larsen et al. 41876 (AAU). (Henderson, A.J., A Revision of Wallichia (Palmae) in Taiwania 52(1). 2007)A