Zombia L.H.Bailey, Gentes Herb. 4: 240 (1939)

Primary tabs

http://media.e-taxonomy.eu/palmae/photos/palm_tc_215916_1.jpg

Distribution

Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
Dominican Republicpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Haitipresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
One species in Hispaniola. (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Discussion

  • An unusual palm easily distinguished by the bizarre, persistent, spiny leaf sheaths. Differing from Coccothrinax by having white fruits and from Thrinax, Hemithrinax and Leucothrinax by having unsplit petioles. (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Diagnosis

  • Distinctive clustering hermaphroditic fan palm of Hispaniola, with close erect stems almost completely obscured by spines formed from the fibres of the expanded leaf sheaths; petiole base not split; fruit white, the seed deeply bilobed, each lobe further lobed. (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Biology And Ecology

  • Open and bushy slopes of very dry hills. (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Common Name

  • Zombi palm. (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Etymology

  • From the Haitian local name, latanier zombie, itself alluding to zombies. (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Uses

  • A striking ornamental. Fruit are said to be fed to hogs. (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Description

  • Moderate, clustering, spiny, pleonanthic, hermaphroditic palm. Stem erect, slender, covered with persistent, overlapping spiny sheaths, few erect spine-like pneumatophores emerging from the ground near the stem base. Leaves induplicate, palmate, marcescent; sheath expanding into a regular network of fibres, distal fibres reflexed, forming a partial whorl of spines; petiole very slender, elongate, unarmed, semicircular in cross-section; adaxial hastula 3-lobed, center lobe pointed, lateral lobes rounded becoming irregularly tattered, abaxial hastula also pointed with very shallow lateral ridges; blade irregularly divided along the adaxial folds 1/2 – 2/3 to the base into single-fold, lanceolate, rather thin, shortly bifid segments, shiny dark green above, whitish beneath, caducous indumentum along ribs on both surfaces, midrib prominent abaxially, interfold ribs prominent adaxially, transverse veinlets scarcely discernible. Inflorescences interfoliar, shorter than the leaves, branched to 2 orders; peduncle short; prophyll partly included in the subtending the leaf sheath, tubular, 2-keeled, opening and ± 2-lobed distally, longitudinally striate; peduncular bracts lacking; rachis longer than the peduncle, densely tomentose; rachis bracts tubular, longitudinally striate, sparsely tomentose, each with a short pointed lobe, sometimes with short apical splits; first-order branches distant, each bearing a basal, tubular, 2-keeled, 2-lobed, longitudinally striate, sparsely tomentose prophyll; rachillae (second-order branches) sparse, short, spreading, proximal 2 ± subopposite, subtended by narrow bracts, distal rachillae subopposite or alternate, subtending bracts minute, inconspicuous, rachillae slender, glabrous, minutely papillose, bearing rather distant, solitary, subdistichous flowers each subtended by a minute triangular bract. Flowers cream-coloured; perianth shallow, cup-shaped with 6 short, membranous points; stamens 9–12, the filaments short, variable, slender, anthers basifixed, erect, elongate, latrorse; gynoecium obpyriform, unicarpellate, tapered to a large, laterally compressed, cup-like stigma, ovule basal, orthotropous. Pollen ellipsoidal, slight to obvious asymmetry; aperture a distal sulcus; ectexine tectate, perforate, aperture margin ± psilate; infratectum columellate; longest axis 30–38 µm [1/1]. Fruit falling with the perianth attached and stamen bases often obvious, oblong-globose, white, fleshy, large, with apical stigmatic remains; epicarp smooth except for the stigmatic remains, mesocarp fleshy without obvious fibres, endocarp crustaceous. Seed basally attached, very deeply bilobed, the lobes again divided irregularly in a bilobed fashion, the 2 halves connected by a portion in which the embryo lies centrally, endosperm homogeneous within the lobes. Germination and eophyll not recorded. Cytology: 2n = 36. (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Anatomy

  • Leaf (Tomlinson 1961), roots (Seubert 1997),floral (Morrow 1965, Moore and Uhl 1973). (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Fossil record

  • No generic records found. (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Relationships

  • Baker et al. (in review) find high support for asister relationship between Zombia and a clade of Thrinax,Coccothrinax, Hemithrinax and Leucothrinax. Roncal et al.(2008) place Zombia as sister to a clade of Coccothrinax, Hemithrinax and Leucothrinax with weak support. (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Taxonomic accounts

  • Bailey (1939b). (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Bibliography

A. J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008
B. World Checklist of Arecaceae