Butia purpurascens Glassman, Principes 23: 67 (1979), nom. inval.

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Distribution

Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
Brazil West-Centralpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
At present, only known from cerrados in the state of Goias. (S.F. Glassman, Re-evaluation of the Genus Butia With a Description of a New Species. 1979)A

Discussion

  • Macedo 3321 also seems to belong to B. purpurascens. It is 2-4 m tall, has petiole margins free of spines or teeth, and has other morphological characteristics which match closely; but no information is given on the color of the flowers. Cross sections of the pinnae, however, reveal a tissue pattern very similar to Butia archeri. The new species resembles Butia capitata superficially, but differs from it mainly in the smooth or fibrous rather than toothed petiole margins, the longacuminate rather than acute or obtuse tips of pinnae, and the purplish rather than greenish spathes, spadices, flowers, and fruits. It is assumed that the purplish color is due to anthocyanin pigments. When specimens were dried, some lost all of their purple color whereas others retained some or most of their color. From a morphological standpoint, Butia purpurascens seems to be most closely aligned to B. archeri because both taxa have smooth (not toothed) petiole margins, long-acuminate tips to the pinnae, staminate and pistillate flowers similar in size, and fruits similar in size, shape and number of locules. Butia archeri, as described by me (1968) , differs primarily in being mostly acaulescent, in the smaller dimensions of leaves, spathes, and spadices, and in the lack of the purplish color in flower and fruit parts. As I had expected, an examination of cross sections of the pinnae of B. purpurascens (Glassman 13076) reveals that its anatomical pattern matches the other seven species of Butia very closely, thus confirming its placement within this group. (S.F. Glassman, Re-evaluation of the Genus Butia With a Description of a New Species. 1979)A

Diagnosis

  • Palma 1.2-4 m alta. Folia aequaliter pinnatisecta petiolo non dentato rachidi 84-122 em longa pinnis utrimque 52-58. Spatha spadix flo res fructus purpuraseens. Spathae pars inflata non plicata 71-80 em longa 8-9 em lata. Flores masculi inferiores 6-7 mm longi superiores 4-4.5 mm longi; flores feminei 5-6 mm longi 4.5-5.0 mm lati. Fructus 2.3-2.9 em longus 1.0-1.3 em in diam. (S.F. Glassman, Re-evaluation of the Genus Butia With a Description of a New Species. 1979)A

Description

  • Small trees 1.2-4 m tall, about 15 em in diam.; sheathing leaf base and petiole not clearly separated, combined length of about 4.9 cm; margins of petiole densely fibrous on lower half, becoming less fibrous toward base of rachis, not armed with teeth or spines; rachis of leaf 84-122 cm long; pinnae 52-58 on each side, more or less evenly spaced, middle ones 44-60 em long, 1.6-1.8 cm wide, with long-acuminate, asymmetrical tips; expanded part of spathe frequently purplish, 71-80 em long, 8-9 em wide, smooth or striate, peduncular part 30-37 cm long; branched part of spadix frequently purplish, 60-64 em long, peduncular part 41-48 em long, rachillae about 50 or more, each 23-26 cm long; pistillate flowers more or less globose, frequently purplish, 5-6 mm long, 4.5-5 mm in diam sepals and petals about equal in size; staminate flowers frequently purplish, lower ones 6-7 mm long, with prominent pseudopedicel and calyx 2-4 mm long, upper ones 4-4.5 mm long with calyx 1.5-2.5 mm long; fruit ovoid, usually purplish. 2.3-2.9 em long, 1.0-1.3 em in diam., beak 4-5 mm long, persistent perianth 7-8 mm high, locules 1-2, mature seeds not seen. (S.F. Glassman, Re-evaluation of the Genus Butia With a Description of a New Species. 1979)A

Materials Examined

  • BRAZIL. GOlAS: 3 km N.E. of Jatai, in pasture and cerrado, common (about 400 trees seen) for about 25 km along both sides of road, spathes, spadices, flowers, and fruits mostly purplish, Glassman 13076 (CHI, holotype); Glassman 13075, 13077, 13079, 13080, 13081, 13082 (CHI, SP); 26 km N.£. of Rio Verde, along BR 060, dense cerrado, associated with Syagrus flexuosa, Attalea, and Allagoptera, rachillae and flowers purple, Glassman 13071 (CHI, SP) ; and probably Balsamo, palma campestre, Macedo 3321 (SP, US). (S.F. Glassman, Re-evaluation of the Genus Butia With a Description of a New Species. 1979)A