Hyospathe Mart., Hist. Nat. Palm. 2: 1 (1823)

Primary tabs

http://media.e-taxonomy.eu/palmae/photos/palm_tc_101301_1.jpg

Distribution

Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
Boliviapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Brazil Northpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Colombiapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Costa Ricapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Ecuadorpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
French Guianapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Guyanapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Panamápresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Perupresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Surinamepresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Venezuelapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Six species ranging from Costa Rica to Peru. (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Discussion

  • It seems surprising that their ornamental potential has not been exploited. The difference in length of antesepalous and antepetalous stamens and the adnation of the antepetalous filaments to the pistillode are distinctive and unusual in the family as a whole. (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Diagnosis

  • Small, solitary or clustering palms of South American rain forests, often with entire leaves or with broad pinnae: the staminate flowers have stamens adnate to the pistillode and the fruit has basal stigmatic remains. (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Biology And Ecology

  • In rain forest, in swamps or on dry ground at low elevations but also on the slopes of the Andes between 1000–2000 m. (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Common Name

  • Hog palm, ubim palm (Hyospathe elegans). (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Etymology

  • Hyo-from hys — pig, spathe — sheath or bract, derived from the vernacular name tajassu-ubi — pig leaf or pork palm. (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Uses

  • These palms would make handsome ornamentals. (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Description

  • Small or rarely moderate, solitary or clustering, graceful, unarmed, pleonanthic, monoecious palms. Stem slender, ringed with conspicuous, sometimes oblique, rather distant leaf scars. Leaves regularly pinnate, entire and bifid, or bi- or trijugate; sheath usually forming a short to long crownshaft, not splitting opposite the petiole until shed, margin irregular, chartaceous, striate, adaxially grooved, glabrous, abaxially with scattered scales; petiole moderate, slender, abaxially rounded, with hairs or deciduous scales; rachis adaxially ridged, abaxially ridged or rounded, also scaly; leaflets lanceolate to falcate, pointed, often somewhat curved apically, alternate, single-fold, several-fold or many-fold, bearing scattered deciduous scales along abaxial ribs and sometimes basally on adaxial ribs, laterally, tapering to a rather blunt point, chartaceous, splitting surfaces similar or dissimilar in colour, midrib prominent, 1–2 pairs of dorsiventrally and apically to become bifid, inserted above the base of the parallel veins also conspicuous in some species, transverse veinlets peduncle; peduncular bracts 1–2, terete, much longer than or about as long conspicuous or obscure. Inflorescence solitary, branched to 1 order, branches as the prophyll, beaked, splitting abaxially, inserted somewhat above the stiff or pendulous; peduncle short or long, slender; prophyll 2-keeled prophyll; rachis much shorter to rarely longer than the peduncle; rachis bracts very short, obscure, subtending spirally inserted rachillae; rachillae slender, rather distant or crowded, moderate to short and stiff or long and pendulous, sometimes undulate apically, bearing spirally arranged triads of flowers nearly throughout and paired to solitary staminate flowers distally; floral bracteoles shallow, rounded. Staminate flowers lateral to the pistillate, sessile or stalked, narrow, elongate; sepals 3, united in a tube, adnate basally for at least 2/3 their length to the receptacle to form a stalk-like base, free tips short, broadly triangular; petals 3, distinct, narrowly ovate, asymmetical, curved basally, pointed distally; stamens 6, the 3 antesepalous with shorter filaments, free or shortly joined with the pistillode, the 3 antepetalous with filaments much longer, adnate to the pistillode nearly to its apex, filaments awl-shaped, anthers moderately long, dorsifixed near the base, latrorse, united throughout; pistillode narrowly ovoid with 2 stigmatic lobes. Pollen ellipsoidal, with slight or obvious asymmetry; aperture a distal sulcus; ectexine tectate, finely or coarsely perforate-rugulate, aperture margin finer; infratectum columellate; longest axis 34–39 µm [1/17]. Pistillate flower ovoid, shorter than the staminate; sepals 3, united in a cupule for ca. 2/3 their length, tips broad, pointed, striate; petals 3, distinct, ovate, moderately imbricate, striate, tips pointed; staminodes 6, small, strap-like; gynoecium ovoid, unilocular, uniovulate, narrowed to a short tubular style, stigmas 3, recurved at anthesis, ovule basal, laterally attached, form unknown. Fruit ovoid to cylindrical, pointed, asymmetrical, black at maturity, stigmatic remains basal; epicarp smooth, lightly mottled, mesocarp fibrous, endocarp thin, crustaceous. Seed narrow, ovoid, ± pointed, hilum basal, raphe branches anastomosing, endosperm homogeneous; embryo rather large, basal. Germination adjacent-ligular; eophyll bifid. Cytology not studied. (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Anatomy

  • See Skov and Balslev (1989). (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Fossil record

  • No generic records found. (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Relationships

  • Hyospathe is monophyletic (Henderson 1999a). The genus is resolved as sister to the rest of the Euterpeae with moderate support (Asmussen et al. 2006, Baker et al. in review), or as sister to Neonicholsonia, Oenocarpus and Prestoea with low support (Henderson 1999a). (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Taxonomic accounts

  • Skov and Balslev (1989), Henderson (2004), see also Henderson (1999a). (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Use Record

  • Hyospathe Mart.: Cicatrizante: se prepara un emplasto del tallo, o se pone su savia sobre el área afectada. (Tournon, J., G. Serrano, U. Reátegui, and J. Albán, Plantas y árboles medicinales de los Conibo del Alto Ucayali: concepciones nativas y botánica. 1986)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Medicinal and VeterinarySkin and subcutaneous tissueStemIndigenousShipibo-ConiboPeru
  • Hyospathe Mart.: Es la más buscada (junto con la llarina) para techos duraderos. (Guallart, J.M., Nomenclatura Jibaro-Aguaruna de Palmeras en el Distrito de Cenepa.. 1968)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionThatchEntire leafIndigenousAguarunaPeru
  • Hyospathe Mart.: La naturaleza de los materiales empleados para la cubierta del techo varía (...). En el hábitat interfluvial se utilizan dos variedades muy similares de palmera, kampanak (Hyospatha sp.) y turuji (Hyospatha tessmannii); (...). (Descola, P., La selva culta- Simbolismo y praxis en la ecología de los Achuar. 1989)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionThatchEntire leafIndigenousAchuarEcuador
  • Hyospathe Mart.: Leaves are used for thatch. (Vickers, W.T., and T. Plowman, Useful plants of the Siona and Secoya indians of Eastern Ecuador. 1984)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionThatchEntire leafIndigenousSiona-SecoyaEcuador
  • Hyospathe Mart.: Roofing material. (López-Parodi, J., The use of palms and other native plants in non-conventional, low cost rural housing in the Peruvian Amazon. 1988)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionThatchEntire leafMestizoN/APeru
  • Hyospathe Mart.: Thatch. (Shepard, G.H., D.W. Yu, M. Lizarralde, et al., Rain forest habitat classification among the Matsigenka of the Peruvian Amazon. 2001)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionThatchEntire leafIndigenousMatsigenkaPeru
  • Hyospathe Mart.: Thatching. (…). The leaves of several species of "palmiche" (Geonoma spp., Mejia 0003, 0101 and 0104) are occasionally used for roofing, and in one village, the use of Hyospathe sp. (Mejia 0088) or "palmichillo" was also observed. (Mejía, K., Las palmeras en los mercados de Iquitos. 1992)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionThatchEntire leafMestizoN/APeru

Bibliography

A. J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008
B. World Checklist of Arecaceae