Eremospatha macrocarpa H.Wendl., Palmiers : 244 (1878)

Primary tabs

http://media.e-taxonomy.eu/palmae/photos/palm_tc_70697_2.jpg

Distribution

Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
Beninpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Cameroonpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Central African Republicpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Equatorial Guineapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Ghanapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Guineapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Ivory Coastpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Liberiapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Nigeriapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Sierra Leonepresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Zairepresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Eremospatha macrocarpa is a very widespread and common species and is distributed from Senegal in West Africa through to the lowland forests of the Congo Basin. (T.C.H Sunderland, A taxonomic revision of the rattans of Africa (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) in Phytotaxa 51. 2012)A

Biology And Ecology

  • This species is extremely light demanding, occurring naturally in gap vegetation and forest margins. As a result of this, in common with other members of the genus, E. macrocarpa responds extremely well to selective logging activities and is a common component of regrowth vegetation. (T.C.H Sunderland, A taxonomic revision of the rattans of Africa (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) in Phytotaxa 51. 2012)A

Conservation

  • Least concern (LC). (T.C.H Sunderland, A taxonomic revision of the rattans of Africa (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) in Phytotaxa 51. 2012)A

Etymology

  • The specific name refers to the comparatively large-fruits (Latin). (T.C.H Sunderland, A taxonomic revision of the rattans of Africa (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) in Phytotaxa 51. 2012)A

Description

  • Clustered slender to moderate palm climbing to 50-75 m, rarely to 150 m. Stems circular in cross-section, without sheaths, 10-18 mm in diameter, with 22-30 mm; internodes 13-16 cm long. Leaf sheath longitudinally striate, sparsely to moderately covered with light brown scale-like indumentum; ocrea entire, ± truncate saddle-shaped with a 2.5-4.0 cm rounded lobe adaxial to the leaf; knee absent. Juvenile stems up to 20m long; stem with sheath, <1.5 cm in diameter; ocrea with distinct linear wrinkle on adaxial side; petiole <1 cm long; leaves bifid, up to 40 cm × 50 cm, deeply notched, lobes sharply triangular; cirrus up to 80 cm long, emerging from the centre; elaminate rachis often present on juvenile stems, 50-75 cm long. Leaves on mature stems sessile, up to 3.5 m long; rachis 1-1.5 m long, abaxially rounded, adaxially flattened, becoming trapezoid then rounded in cross-section distally, armed along the margins with inequidistant, reflexed thorns, becoming sparsely armed distally, underside of rachis with sparse light brown indumentum; cirrus 1.2-2 m long, unarmed; leaflets, up to 25 pairs on each side of the rachis, linear-lanceolate, abruptly contracted at the base, irregularly and narrowly praemorse at apex, 22-35 cm long × 2-2.5 cm broad at the widest point, concolorous, with 5-7 inconspicuous transverse veinlets 1-2 mm apart, armed along the margins with inequidistant, curved, forward-facing brown-tan spines; lowermost leaflets, smaller than the rest, linear-ovate, reflexed and laxly clasping the stem; acanthophylls ca.3 cm long, parallel to cirrus. Inflorescence glabrous, up to 55 cm long; peduncle 10-15 cm long; rachis 25-40 cm long, arching outwards, rarely straight; rachis bracts, acuminate, opposite proximally, alternate distally, 1-3 mm long, decreasing distally; rachillae distichous, arching vertically, sometimes horizontal, straight, 10-14 on each side, 12-18 cm long, decreasing distally, adnate to the inflorescence axis for 0.5-1.5 mm, with <1 mm-long triangular incomplete bracts subtending each dyad. Flowers borne in close pairs; calyx 3 mm long × 6 mm wide at the mouth, with 3 distinct, rounded, lobes; corolla 10 mm long × 4 mm wide, divided to ¼ of its length; stamens united into 5 mm-long epipetalous ring; free filaments <0.5 mm; anthers <1 mm long; ovary 4 mm × 2.5 mm tipped with ca.2 mm-long style. Fruit at maturity 1-seeded, rarely 2-seeded, ± cylindrical, 2.2-2.6 cm long × 1-1.5 cm wide, with 17-24 rows of vertical scales. Seed compressed, 1.8-2 cm long × 1.4-1.8 cm wide × 1 cm thick, flattened on one side or with a shallow depression, embryo lateral, raised, opposite the flattened side. (T.C.H Sunderland, A taxonomic revision of the rattans of Africa (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) in Phytotaxa 51. 2012)A

Materials Examined

  • SIERRA LEONE: Deighton 4118, Giewahun (07º36N:11º11W) Fr., March 10, 1945 (K!); Mann s.n., Bagroo River (07º45N:12º50W) Fr., 1861 (K!); Liberia: Linder 1341, Moala, sterile, November 1, 1926 (K!, MO!); IVORY COAST: Boughey s.n., Taï Forest (05º38N:07º08W) juvenile, May 5, 1954 (GC!); Jangoux 215, Tien-Oula (06º45N:07º04W) juvenile, August 3, 1962 (BR!); Oldeman674, 40km N of Bereby (04º54N:07º02W) Fr. only, November 14, 1963 (WAG!); GHANA: Adams 2195, Enchi (05º29N:02º29W) sterile, December 30, 1953 (GC!); Adams 2214, Enchi (05º29N:02º29W) sterile, December 30, 1953 (GC!); Enti 1914, Ankasa Forest Reserve (05º15N:02º36W) Fl., January 30, 1979 (MO!, WAG!); Hall 42605, Ankasa Forest Reserve (05º15N:02º36W) Fl., February 14, 1971 (MO!); Hall s.n., Ankasa Forest Reserve (05º15N:02º36W) Fl., February 12, 1971 (GC!); Irvine 4861, Kade Agricultural Research Station (06º05N:00º50W) sterile, June 1961 (K!); Irvine 4873, Kade Agricultural Research Station (06º05N:00º50W) sterile, June 1961 (K!); Irvine 4886, Kade Agricultural Research Station (06º05N:00º50W) sterile, June 1961 (K!); Johnson s.n., Aburi (05º51N:00º10W) Fr., February 25, 1901 (K!); Kisseadoo 441, Bobiri F.R. (06º38N:01º17W) sterile, November 10, 1988 (MO!); Moore & Enti 9887, Ankasa Forest Reserve (05º15N:02º36W) sterile, March 4, 1971 (GC!); Moore & Enti 9891, Ankasa Forest Reserve (05º15N:02º36W) Fl., March 4, 1971 (GC!); Moore & Enti 9893, Ankasa Forest Reserve (05º15N:02º36W) Fl., March 4, 1971 (GC!); Sunderland 2260, Draw River Forest Reserve (05º12N:02º20W) sterile, May 26, 1999 (K!, KUM!); Sunderland 2264, Draw River Forest Reserve (05º12N:02º20W) sterile, May 26, 1999 (K!, KUM!); Tomlinson s.n., Bobiri F.R. (06º38N:01º17W) sterile, December 20, 1957 (GC!); Vigne 1829, Juasso (06º32N:01º06W) Fl., February 28, 1938 (K!, KUM!); Vigne 4858, Kumasi District (06º40N:01º39W) Fl., May 30, 1945 (K!, KUM!, BR!); West-Skinn 11, Juasso (06º32N:01º06W) juvenile, 1957 (K!); BENIN: Aufsess 425, Adjarra (06º32N:05º52E) sterile, December 6, 1988 (K!); Aufsess 426, Adjarra (06º32N:05º52E) sterile, December 6, 1988 (K!); Aufsess 429, Adjarra (06º32N:05º52E) sterile, December 6, 1988 (K!); NIGERIA: Daramola & Adebusuyi 38415, Kabba Province, Kotokerifi (08º08N:06º44N) Fr., October 24, 1958 (K!); Jones & Onochie 17237, Oma & Shasha F.R.'s (07º07N:04º23E) Fr., April 4, 1946 (K!, BR!); Letter 8224, Ikan, sterile, 1904 (K!); Lowe 2793, 40 miles SE of Benin City (05º59N:06º07E) juvenile, March 28, 1974 (K!); Maggs 159, Kwa Falls near Calabar (04º59N:08º20E) juvenile, August 26, 1948 (K!); Mann2330, Cross River (05º15N:08º42E) Fl., February 1863 (K!); Morakinyo 1003, Cross River National Park (05º15N:08º42E) seedling, August 15, 1993 (K!); Morakinyo 1004, Cross River National Park (05º15N:08º42E) Fr., August 18, 1993 (K!); Niger Company s.n., Oban rubber estate Calabar (05º02N:08º21E) sterile, December 15, 1991 (K!); Nwambin & Tuley 603, Ojo road (08º19N:04º14E) juvenile, May 4, 1964 (K!); Onochie & Jones FHI 17332, Afi River Forest.Reserve, Fr., May 28, 1946 (FHO!); Thomas 338, Agola District, sterile, 1911 (K!); Tuley 1076, Ikom to Obudu road (06º04N:08º56E) sterile, December 10, 1964 (K!); Tuley 1077, Ikom to Obudu road (06º04N:08º56E) seedling, August 24, 1976 (K!); Tuley 650, Aban Rubber Estate (07º36N:08º56E) Fr., July 12, 1964 (K!, WAG!); Unwin 109, southern Nigeria, Fr., July 28, 1907 (K!); CAMEROON: Asonganyi 729, Tissongo, 16km EES of Mouanko (03º24N:09º50E) Fl., January 20, 1984 (YA!); Brunt 137, Ndop Plain (05º47N:10º15E) seedling, March 5, 1962 (YA!); Brunt 207, Ndop Plain (05º47N:10º15E) sterile, March 21, 1962 (K!); Dransfield 7005, Mile 45, Buea-Kumba road (05º02N:09º24E) sterile, June 28, 1991 (K!, SCA!); Dransfield 7002, Mungo River Crossing (04º08N:09º31E) juvenile, June 27, 1991 (K!); Etuge 1393, Mount Kupe (04º46N:09º41E) sterile, November 5, 1995 (SCA!); Faden & Mbama 86/60, Kribi-Ebolowa road (02º51N:10º00E) sterile, January 31, 1986 (YA!); Harris 2456, 34km W of Nguti (05º00N:09º00E) sterile, August 27, 1990 (K!); Harris 2471, 35km W`of Nguti (05º00N:09º00E) sterile, August 27, 1990 (K!); Harris & Payne 2470, 35km W`of Nguti (05º00N:09º00E) sterile, August 29, 1990 (K!); Letouzey 8465, 10km SE of Sangmelima (02º55N:11º58E) Fl. & Fr., November 24, 1966 (YA!); Letouzey 12563, Lac Tissongo (03º34N:09º53E) Fl. only, January 4, 1974 (YA!); Letouzey 13843, 10km N of Nguti (05º23N:09º23E) Fr., June 15, 1975 (YA!); Meijer 15221, Sangmelima (02º55N:11º58E) sterile, March 24, 1981 (K!, WAG!, YA!); Meijer 15251, Dja Forest Reserve (03º00N:12º40E) sterile, March 25, 1981 (K!); Njingum 7, Nguti (05º02N:09º24E) sterile, August 5, 1999 (K!); Raynal 9785, 17km SW Ambam (02º21N:11º12E) sterile, February 18, 1963 (YA!); Sunderland 1702, Southern Bakundu Forest Reserve (04º46N:09º29E) sterile, November 8, 1995 (K!, SCA!, MO!); Sunderland1704, Southern Bakundu Forest Reserve (04º46N:09º29E) sterile, November 8, 1995 (K!, SCA!, NY!, WAG!); Sunderland 1713, Onge River valley (04º21N:08º57E) sterile, November 23, 1995 (K!, SCA!, BR!); Sunderland 1717, Kumba to Mamfe road (05º02N:09º24E) sterile, December 1, 1995 (K!, SCA!, BR!); Sunderland 1720, 30km north of Mamfe (05º58N:09º20E) juvenile, December 2, 1995 (K!, SCA!, MO!); Sunderland 1721, 30km north of Mamfe (05º58N:09º20E) Fl., December 2, 1995 (K!, SCA!, BR!); Sunderland 1730, Rumpi Hills Forest Reserve (04º54N:09º20E) seedling, May 19, 1996 (K!, SCA!, BH!); Sunderland 1742, Rumpi Hills Forest Reserve (04º54N:09º20E) sterile, May 19, 1996 (K!, SCA!, MO!); Sunderland 1758, Limbe-Kumbe road: Mile 40 (04º23N:09º26E) juvenile, November 11, 1996 (K!, SCA!, BR!); Sunderland 1767, Southern Bakundu Forest Reserve (04º46N:09º29E) juvenile, November 24, 1996 (K!, SCA!, BH!); Sunderland 1802, Campo Ma'an Faunal Reserve (02º10N:09º54E) Fl., March 24, 1997 (K!, YA!, NY!, WAG!); Sunderland 1807, Campo Ma'an Faunal Reserve (02º10N:09º54E) sterile, April 8, 1997 (K!, YA!, BH!, MO!); Sunderland 1856, 20km south of Kribi (02º34N:09º50E) Fr., August 30, 1997 (K!, YA!, NY!, WAG!); Sunderland 1881, Southern Bakundu Forest Reserve (04º46N:09º29E) Fl., November 26, 1997 (K!, SCA!, NY!, MO!); Sunderland 1883, Kumba to Mamfe road (05º02N:09º24E) juvenile, November 26, 1997 (K!, SCA!, WAG!); Sunderland 1886, 30km south of Kribi (02º48N:09º43E) Fl., November 28, 1997 (K!, YA!, NY!, BR!); Sunderland 1937, Takamanda Forest Reserve (06º06N:09º47E) sterile, November 17, 1998 (K!, SCA!); Sunderland 1999, 15km north of Nguti on Mamfe road (05º23N:09º23E) Fl., January 6, 1999 (K!, SCA!); Sunderland 2042, Takamanda Forest Reserve (06º08N:09º16E) sterile, January 13, 1999 SUNDERLAND (K!, SCA!); Sunderland 2043, Takamanda Forest Reserve (06º08N:09º16E) sterile, January 13, 1999 (K!, SCA!); Sunderland 2057, Takamanda Forest Reserve (06º08N:09º16E) sterile, January 18, 1999 (K!, SCA!); Sunderland 2252, Mokoko River Forest Reserve (04º29N:09º00E) sterile, February 16, 1999 (K!, SCA!); Thomas 8182, 15km W of Manyemen (05º10N:09º15E) sterile, August 29, 1988 (MO!); Thomas 10058, Mokoko River Forest Reserve (04º25N:09º02E) sterile, May 22, 1994 (SCA!); van Gemerden BL, Ebom II (03º04N:10º43E) sterile, March 11, 1997 (K!); CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC: Fay 7018, N'Dele-Pata road (08º08N:21º08E) Fr., May 30, 1985 (MO!); EQUATORIAL GUINEA: Lisowski 1263, Mbini (02º00N:09º45E) juvenile, September 1997 (EG!); Sunderland 1797, 2km north of Ayemeken (02º10N:10º03E) juvenile, March 13, 1997 (K!, EG!, NY!); Sunderland 1800, 1km north of Ayemeken (02º10N:10º03E) sterile, March 13, 1997 (K!, EG!, WAG!); Sunderland 1874, 2km SW of village of Angoma (02º03N:10º10E) seedling, September 15, 1997 (K!, EG!, BH!, MO!); Sunderland 1901, 10km south of Bata (01º45N:09º43E) sterile, March 20, 1998 (K!, EG!, WAG!); Sunderland 1918, 2km WSW of village of Basilé (01º10N:09º50E) juvenile, April 7, 1998 (K!, EG!, WAG!); DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO: Bequaert 7895, Katala (08º35S:25.16E) Fr., June 28, 1915 (BR!); Dewevre 639, Fl., s.d. (BR!); Dewulf 526, River L'Uele (03º52N:26º28E) Fl., December 20, 1934 (BR!); Holman-Bentley s.n., Upper River Congo, sterile, March 23, 1889 (K!); Hulstaert 864, Bamanga (00º16S:25º32E) Fr., November 1, 1942 (BR!); Hulstaert 1420, Bokela (01º07S:21º55E) juvenile, s.d. (BR!); Laurent s.n., Basounda, sterile, January 10, 1904 (BR!); Laurent s.n., River Kivi, Fr., November 6, 1903 (BR!); Liegeois 86, 28km from Buta (02º47N:24º43E) sterile, July 1943 (BR!); Louis 15489, Bengamisa (00º57N:25º10E) juvenile, July 9, 1939 (BR!); Pauwels 4543, Kimpoko (04º11S:15º34E) sterile, July 4, 1964 (BR!); Sapin s.n., Kasai (10º07S:22º20E) sterile, s.d. (BR!); Sapin s.n., Tshibangu (05º56S:20º54E) Fr., January 1910 (BR!) (T.C.H Sunderland, A taxonomic revision of the rattans of Africa (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) in Phytotaxa 51. 2012)A

Bibliography

    A. T.C.H Sunderland, A taxonomic revision of the rattans of Africa (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) in Phytotaxa 51. 2012
    B. World Checklist of Arecaceae