Calamus siamensis Becc., Rec. Bot. Surv. India 2: 203 (1902)

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Distribution

Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
Laos present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Malaya present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Myanmar present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Thailand present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Thailand (North, North-east, Central, Peninsular), Laos (South) and Peninsular Malaysia. (T. Evans & K. Sengdala & B. Thammavong & O.V. Viengkham & J. Dransfield, A Synopsis of the Rattans (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) of Laos and Neighbouring Parts of Indochina. 2002)A

Discussion

  • The varieties cannot be maintained because the arrangement of leaflets can be observed varying from regularly arranged to irregularly pinnate between leaves on a single stem in southern Laos. As described under C. viminalis the presence of paired female flowers flanking many of the neuter flowers can no longer be considered diagnostic of C. siamensis. Indeed, as has been suggested by Hodel & Vatcharakorn (1998), there may be a case for synonymising the two species. However, we believe it is useful to maintain two names for the following reasons: (i) all plants we have encountered so far can easily be assigned between the two forms (even when growing admixed in a single forest patch, as on Khone island, southern Laos) depending on whether the leaflets are either divaricate, tightly grouped and plumose with a moderate petiole, or roughly parallel, interruptedly pinnate to regular and arranged in a single plane with a shorter petiole; (ii) the two forms occupy a different range of habitats, at least in Laos, with C. siamensis being a localised, southern species of floodplain thickets and forest and C. viminalis being a highly catholic species occurring throughout the country, typically in hot, dry, low- stature scrub but occasionally also evergreen formations; (iii) the two forms are both major commercial species in North-east Thai plantations for shoot production and they are recognised by growers as distinct entities requiring distinct names. When we visited the plantations in North-east Thailand we found that the scientific names were being consistently misapplied, a fact which could prevent the successful sharing of data with other teams developing rattan plantations. Plants of C. viminalis Willd. were being referred to verbally and in print (Kundilok et al. 1997, Jarernrattawong 1997) as C. siamensis whereas plants matching C. siamensis Becc. were being referred to as Calamus sp. The root of this error may be that the plantation specialists had referred to misidentified material in BKF. Of the five specimens of C. viminalis at BKF in June 2000 three had been identified as C. siamensis, one named Calamus sp., and one correctly named, whilst two other sheets named C. viminalis were in fact C. henryanus and one was a very distinct Peninsular species with which TDE was not familiar. Of the four C. siamensis specimens, two had been correctly named, one was labelled Calamus sp. and the fourth was named C. acanthophyllus. (T. Evans & K. Sengdala & B. Thammavong & O.V. Viengkham & J. Dransfield, A Synopsis of the Rattans (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) of Laos and Neighbouring Parts of Indochina. 2002)A

Biology And Ecology

  • Scrub forest and degraded semi-evergreen forest; in Laos at 100 m, in Thailand at 0 - 300 m. (T. Evans & K. Sengdala & B. Thammavong & O.V. Viengkham & J. Dransfield, A Synopsis of the Rattans (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) of Laos and Neighbouring Parts of Indochina. 2002)A

Conservation

  • Unknown, but probably not of great concern. (T. Evans & K. Sengdala & B. Thammavong & O.V. Viengkham & J. Dransfield, A Synopsis of the Rattans (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) of Laos and Neighbouring Parts of Indochina. 2002)A

Common Name

  • wai khom, wai nam, wai deng (Lao Loum), yo (Kaleng), re dark (Alak). (T. Evans & K. Sengdala & B. Thammavong & O.V. Viengkham & J. Dransfield, A Synopsis of the Rattans (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) of Laos and Neighbouring Parts of Indochina. 2002)A

Uses

  • Cane suitable for handicrafts and also in trade, shoots edible. We have observed large plantations of this species for edible shoot production in North-east Thailand. It was in cultivation around Chiang Mai as long ago as 1915 (Kerr 3541). (T. Evans & K. Sengdala & B. Thammavong & O.V. Viengkham & J. Dransfield, A Synopsis of the Rattans (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) of Laos and Neighbouring Parts of Indochina. 2002)A

Materials Examined

  • THAILAND (NORTH): Nakawn Sawawn, Mae Wong, 24 May 1922, (fr.), Kerr, A. 6014 (K, BK). (NORTH-EAST): Muang Petchabun, 27 March 1922, (fr.), Kerr, A. 5687A (K, BK). (CENTRAL): Nonthaburi, nr Bangkok, 23 March 1924, (stam.), Marcan, A. 1642 (K, BM). (PENINSULAR): Narathiwat Province, Pong Pong waterfall, 19 June 1992, (fr.), Bogh, A. et al. 43022 (K, BKF). (UNKNOWN): Siam, undated, (fr.), Schomburgk, Sir R. s.n. E128 (K). LAOS (SOUTH): Attapeu Province, Sanxay Distr., Ban Tatkoum, Phou Lekfay, 14 May 1999, (fr.), Khamphone KP 401 (FRCL, K). MALAYSIA (PENINSULAR): Perlis, Ridley 15359 (SING). (T. Evans & K. Sengdala & B. Thammavong & O.V. Viengkham & J. Dransfield, A Synopsis of the Rattans (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) of Laos and Neighbouring Parts of Indochina. 2002)A

Bibliography

    A. T. Evans & K. Sengdala & B. Thammavong & O.V. Viengkham & J. Dransfield, A Synopsis of the Rattans (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) of Laos and Neighbouring Parts of Indochina. 2002
    B. World Checklist of Arecaceae