Calamus viminalis Willd., Sp. Pl. 2: 203 (1799)

Primary tabs

http://media.e-taxonomy.eu/palmae/photos/palm_tc_30005_1.jpg

Distribution

Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
Andaman Is. present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Assam present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Bangladesh present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Cambodia present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
China South-Central present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
India present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Jawa present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Laos present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Lesser Sunda Is. present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Malaya present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Myanmar present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Nicobar Is. present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Thailand present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Vietnam present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
DISTRIBUTION. India (South, North-central, North-east, Andaman and Nicobar Islands), Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand (all parts), Laos (all parts), Vietnam (Cochinchina and Central Annam), Cambodia, Peninsular Malaysia, Indonesia (Java and Bali). Also probably China (North-west and South Yunnan) (Pei et al. 1989, 1991). (T. Evans & K. Sengdala & B. Thammavong & O.V. Viengkham & J. Dransfield, A Synopsis of the Rattans (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) of Laos and Neighbouring Parts of Indochina. 2002)A

Discussion

  • The nominate variety is reported only from Java and variety fasciculatus from mainland South-east Asia. Beccari (1908) noted that the two varieties could 'hardly be separated by constant characters' but went on to state that the mainland forms could be subdivided into four subvarieties, two of which were based upon single specimens, and all distinct in differing ways from the Javan form. Without explanation Gagnepain & Conrard (1937) and Basu (1992) between them synonymised with the nominate form variety fasciculatus and three of the four subvarieties, whilst some other authors have continued to recognise var. fasciculatus (e.g. Furtado 1956, Dransfield 1979, Dransfield & Manokaran 1993, Pei et al. 1991). We have examined material from throughout the species' range (including several specimens from Java not available to Beccari) and have probably encountered the living plants of this species more frequently than any other in Laos. We conclude that the differences between varieties and subvarieties are swamped by the great variability between and within individual clumps. This can often by attributed to environmental factors such as soil quality, illumination, clump maturity and damage. Therefore have no hesitation in synonymising all of the forms listed above. We noted a previously unreported aspect of variation which seems to show a strong geographical pattern and merits further study. Although the female and neuter flowers are often borne in a 1:1 ratio, as is normal in Calamus (Uhl & Dransfield 1987), in many Indochinese specimens some neuter flowers are accompanied by two fertile female flowers, one to either side (the female flowers are 'paired'). This was until now considered characterstic of C. siamensis (Beccari 1908), but can no longer be used to separate that species from C. viminalis, at least in Indochina. The percentage of paired flowers on each C. viminalis rachilla varies depending on the locality, the individual and the part of the inflorescence examined. Sampling a few of the basal rachillae from one of the well-developed basal partial inflorescences gives a good estimate of the percentage of paired flowers across the whole inflorescence (authors' unpublished data). Using this method, comparable estimates were obtained from 32 plants across the mainland range of the species (Fig. 2). There is a notable contrast between most of the range (with low or zero occurrence of 'paired' flowers) and Laos/North-east/East Thailand, with variable levels including many high values (and some zeros). This pattern may imply a genetic difference between populations and merits further study. The species has not previously been reported from Bali. (T. Evans & K. Sengdala & B. Thammavong & O.V. Viengkham & J. Dransfield, A Synopsis of the Rattans (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) of Laos and Neighbouring Parts of Indochina. 2002)A

Biology And Ecology

  • Scrub, village margins, forest edge and (locally) inside evergreen forest, 0 - 600 m. (T. Evans & K. Sengdala & B. Thammavong & O.V. Viengkham & J. Dransfield, A Synopsis of the Rattans (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) of Laos and Neighbouring Parts of Indochina. 2002)A

Conservation

  • Of no conservation concern, since it is favoured by forest loss and tolerates harvesting well. (T. Evans & K. Sengdala & B. Thammavong & O.V. Viengkham & J. Dransfield, A Synopsis of the Rattans (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) of Laos and Neighbouring Parts of Indochina. 2002)A

Common Name

  • wai ton, wai nyair, wai na, wai khom, wai namhang, wai keethao, wai nang, wai tiudeet, wai namleuang (Lao Loum), rebou (Alak), blong chang (Khamu), katengparua (Hmong), wai ngamkhao, wai namhang, wai sambai, wai mon, wai som (Thailand). (T. Evans & K. Sengdala & B. Thammavong & O.V. Viengkham & J. Dransfield, A Synopsis of the Rattans (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) of Laos and Neighbouring Parts of Indochina. 2002)A

Uses

  • The cane is of moderate quality, widely used for handicrafts and sometimes traded. Shoot edible, fruit sometimes sold for food. (T. Evans & K. Sengdala & B. Thammavong & O.V. Viengkham & J. Dransfield, A Synopsis of the Rattans (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) of Laos and Neighbouring Parts of Indochina. 2002)A

Materials Examined

  • INDIA (SOUTH): Madras, Vizagapatam Distr., Palkhonda Hills, March 1834, (stam. & fr.), Gamble 14029 (K). (NORTH-CENTRAL): Beauleah Range, Rampur, undated, (fr.), Hooker & Thompson s.n. E157 (K). (NORTH-EAST): Bengal, undated, (fr.), Hooker 474 (K). (ANDAMANS AND NICOBARS): Andaman, July 1889, (fr.), Mann, E. H. s.n. (FI-B). (NOT LOCATED): Calgong, undated, (stam.), Griffith s.n. E154 (K); Viborg, undated (fr.), Willdenow s.n. (B). BANGLADESH: Dacca, 29 May 1850, (fr.), Hooker & Thompson s.n. E156 (K); 'India Orientalis', undated, (fr.), Roxburgh s.n. (BM). MYANMAR: Rangoon, undated, (fr.), McClelland s.n. E159 (K). LAOS (NORTH): Bokeo Province, Houayxai Distr., Nam Kan Protected Area, Nam Nha (map name Nam Kan), 20 Feb. 1999, (fr.), Khamphone KP 360 (FRCL, K). (CENTRAL): Vientiane Province, Thoulakhom Distr., Ban Phon Pao, Dec. 1998, (fr.), Evans, T TDE 9 (FRCL, K). (SOUTH): Attapeu Province, Sanxay Distr., Ban Tatkoum, Phou Lekfay, 15 May 1999, (stam.), Khamphone KP 402 (FRCL, K). THAILAND (NORTH): Muang Fang, Mu Ngam, 28 March 1921, (fr.), Kerr, A. 5154 (K, BK). (NORTH-EAST): Nawng Kai, Pon Pisai, 24 Feb. 1924, (fr.), Kerr; A. 8562 (K, BM, BK). (EAST): Saraburi Province, Khao Yai National Park, 26 March 1979, (fr.), Dransfield, J. & T Santisuk 5457 (K, BKF). (CENTRAL.): Saraburi Province, Muang Distr., Sahm Lahn forest, 16 Oct. 1973, (stam.), Maxwell, J. E 73 - 520 (BK). (SOUTH-EAST): Aran Pratet, 17 Oct. 1928, (fr.), Kerr A. 2009 (K, BM, BK). (WEST): Petchburi Province, Kaengkrachan Nat Park, 7 Feb. 1994, (fr.), Barfod, A. 45204 (K). (PENINSULAR): Krabi, Ban Kang, 9 Sept. 1930, (fr.), Kerr, A. 19810 (K). VIETNAM (CENTRAL. ANNAM): Kontum Province, 20 km south of Dak Gley town, slopes of Dak Poko R., 30 March 1995, (fr.), Averyanov, L. et al. VH1026 (LE). (COCHINCHINA): Song-Lu Province, Dieu-Loc, Feb. 1877, (fr.), Pierre 4848 (P). CAMBODIA: Angkor, Oct. 1911, (fr.), Lecomte &Finet s.n. E151 (P). MALAYSIA (PENINSULAR): Penang, undated, (stam.), Wallich 8611 (K). INI)ONESIA (JAVA): Ujung Kulon, Cibunar, (fr.) Dransfield, J. 1422 (K, BO). (BALI): Cekik, Gilimanuk, Suaka Margasatw, 19 May 1973, (ster.), Dransfield,J. 3518 (K). (T. Evans & K. Sengdala & B. Thammavong & O.V. Viengkham & J. Dransfield, A Synopsis of the Rattans (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) of Laos and Neighbouring Parts of Indochina. 2002)A

Bibliography

    A. T. Evans & K. Sengdala & B. Thammavong & O.V. Viengkham & J. Dransfield, A Synopsis of the Rattans (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) of Laos and Neighbouring Parts of Indochina. 2002
    B. World Checklist of Arecaceae