Aiphanes tricuspidata Borchs., M.Ruíz & Bernal, Brittonia 41: 156 (1989)

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Distribution

Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
Colombiapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)C
Ecuadorpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)C
Found in the Pacific lowlands and the Andean foothills from the department of Valle in Colombia to the province of EI Oro in southern Ecuador. (Borchsenius, F. and Bernal, R. 1996. Aiphanes (Palmae). Flora Neotropica 70. pp 1-95)B

Habitat

Discussion

Description

  • Understorey palm. Stem solitary, to 4 m tall, 3-5 cm in diameter, often spineless with age. Spines on leaf sheath and leaf axis usually yellow. Leaf blade 80-130 cm long; pinnae 10-15 on each side, broadly wedge shaped, inserted in remote groups of 2-3 and spreading in different planes, the central ones 10-30 cm long and 10-20 cm wide, with three-pointed apex. Inflorescence 80-150 cm long, with 10-60 spreading branches. Flowers purple. Fruits less than 1 cm in diameter, speckled brown and red. (Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador)A
  • Solitary. Stem erect or sometimes procumbent, to 4.5 m tall, 2.5-6 cm diam., light brown, hard, unarmed or with black spines, to 5 cm long, base frequently supported by a cone of prop roots, up to 15 cm high. Leaves 8-10, erect and arching, lower ones recurving; sheath, petiole and rachis with a brown, caducous indument; sheath 23-37 cm long, armed with brown to yellow spines, to 5 cm long; petiole 8-18 cm long; rachis 74-120 cm long, spinulose, unarmed or with scattered, brown to yellow spines abaxially, to 5 cm long; pinnae 11-14 per side, inserted in groups of 2 or rarely 3 separated by 10-20 cm, in different planes, broadly cuneate, 1-3 times as long as wide, dark green adaxially, paler abaxially, strongly tricuspidate, with an up to 9 cm long finger-like projection on the distal margin, adaxial side smooth or rough, abaxial side minutely spinulose or rarely almost glabrous, midrib abaxially with 0-5 yellow to black, to 5 cm long spines; basal pinnae 6-18 x 1-13 cm; middle pinnae 11-29 x 12-20 cm; apical pinnae 1-3 ribbed, quite variable in size and shape, 8-23 x 6-30 cm. Inflorescence interfoliar, erect to drooping, branched to 1 order, sometimes with a few rachillae branched to second order; prophyll 20-56 cm long, 1-3.5 cm wide; peduncular bract 100-170 cm long, 2-2.5 cm wide, with a brown caducous indument, unarmed or with some yellow spines, to 1 cm long; peduncle 67-148 cm long, 4-6 mm diam. at junction with rachis, with a brown, scaly, caducous indument, and many yellow spines, to 1 cm long; rachis 15-55 cm long, unarmed or basally armed like that on the peduncle; rachillae 12-52, minutely spinulose, each subtended by a small bract, ca. 5 mm long; basal rachillae 28-50 cm long, sometimes without flowers for up to 6 cm, with triads for ca. ½ of the length, in this part 2 mm diam., distally ca. 1 mm diam., with staminate dyads; apical rachillae 4-8 cm long, staminate; flower groups sunken into the rachillae, each triad subtended by a bract that covers the pistillate and the proximal staminate flowers before anthesis, each dyad subtended by a similar but smaller bract, covering the proximal flower. Staminate flowers 1-2 mm long, purple with yellow anthers, the proximal of each triad distinctly pedicellate, the remaining more or less sessile; sepals imbricate, 1-1.5 mm long; petals free, valvate, 1.5-2.5 mm long; filaments of very uneven length, 0.2-1.5 mm long, anthers nearly square or slightly longer than wide, 0.5-0.8 x 0.5 mm; pistillode ca. 0.5 mm high. Pistillate flowers 2-4 mm long; sepals broadly imbricate, 2.5-3 mm long; petals connate ca. ½ of the length, valvate distally, 2-4 mm long; staminodial cup 1-2 mm high, truncate, adnate to corolla tube; pistil ca. 2 mm high, glabrous. Fruits reddish brown, speckled, globose. ca. 7 x 9 mm (conserved in alcohol), shortly rostrate; endocarp ca. 6 x 7 mm, irregularly grooved and longitudinally furrowed. (Borchsenius, F. and Bernal, R. 1996. Aiphanes (Palmae). Flora Neotropica 70. pp 1-95)B

Materials Examined

  • COLOMBIA. CAUCA: Mun. De Guapi, Parque Nacional Natural Isla de Gorgona, 1841 (fl), Hinds s.n. (K); ibid., 300 m, 7 Sep 1987 (fl). Lozano 5691, 5916 (COL). NARIÑO: Barbacoas. Río Telembí, between Barbacoas and ca. 15 km up the river, 160 m, 20 Nov 1986 (fl). Bernal & Hammel 1321 (AAU, BA. COL, K, MO, NY. PSO). VALLE: La Trojíta, downstream from Bajo Calima, 5- 50 m. Feb 1944 (fl), Cuatrecasas 16492 (F); 20 m, 9 Apr 1976 (fl), Dransfield et al. 4868 (BH, K). UNKNOWN DEPARTMENT: unknown locality, Purdie s.n. (K).
    ECUADOR. EL ORO: Rd. Machala-Naranjal. km 33, 8 km E along dirt rd. leaving from Río Bonito, 300 m, 14 May 1987 (st), Balslev et al.62521 (AAU, QUA); hills NE of La Avanzada on rd. toward La Piña. 500 ~m, 18 Nov 1987 (imm fr), Skov, Borchsenius, et al. 64829 (AAU, QCA) PICHINCHA: ENDESA forest reserve, km 113 on rd. Quito-Pto. Quito, km 10 N of rd ., 650 m, 17 Nov 1989 (fl, fr), Borchsenius & Luteyn 91425 (AAU, BH, COL, FTG, K, MO, NY, QCA, QCNE, SEL); ibid., km 127, 2 km N of rd ., 500 m. Sep 1987 (juv), Skov, Borchsenius, et al. 64706 (AAU) .
    (Borchsenius, F. and Bernal, R. 1996. Aiphanes (Palmae). Flora Neotropica 70. pp 1-95)B

Use Record