Aiphanes macroloba Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 11: 576 (1932)

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Distribution

Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
Colombiapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)C
Ecuadorpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)C
Western Colombia and Ecuador from the department of Antioquia in the north, along the western slopes of Cordillera Occidental and occasionally also in the Pacific lowlands
south to the Province of Esmeraldas in northern Ecuador. (Borchsenius, F. and Bernal, R. 1996. Aiphanes (Palmae). Flora Neotropica 70. pp 1-95)B

Habitat

Discussion

Common Name

Uses

Description

  • Understorey palm. Stem adscending or erect, to 3 m long, 2-3 cm in diameter, often with suckers at the basal nodes. Leaf blade simple, 30-85 x 15-40 cm, with the outer margin jagged, densely covered below with light brown bristles. Inflorescence unbranched; peduncle 40-100 cm long; spike 10-30 cm long, 4-10 mm in diameter. Flowers greenish yellow to orange in bud, white at anthesis. Fruits elliptic, ca. 10 x 7 mm, orange to red. (Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador)A
  • Caespitose, with 1-5 stems, these up to 2 m tall, 2-3 cm diam., erect or decumbent, sparsely armed with black, to 3 cm long spines, often with suckers and adventitious roots both at base and at the distal nodes, sometimes just below the crown. Leaves 5-8, borne more or less horizontally, lamina entire or divided in a large many-ribbed top segment and 2-3 one-ribbed basal pinnae; sheath 7-17 cm long, sparsely armed with black, to 1 cm long spines; petiole 10-36 cm long, with a brown, scaly indument and few brown, to 1 cm long spines; rachis 36-71 cm long, densely brown-spinulose abaxially; blade (or apical pinna in divided leaves) 30-82 x 18-37 cm, with 13-20 ribs, bifid at apex for 10-19 cm, outer margin praemorse, adaxial side with a row of fine, ca. 1 cm long soft spines along each rib, otherwise glabrous or sparsely spinulose, abaxial side densely covered with brown, ca. 0.5 mm long spinules; basal pinnae of divided blades one-ribbed, narrowly to broadly cuneate, to 18 cm long and 8 cm wide, obliquely praemorse at apex, with a 2-4 cm long finger-like projection on the distal margin. Inflorescence interfoliar, erect, spicate; prophyll 11 -21 cm long, 1-2 cm wide; peduncular bract 38-81 cm long, 1-2 cm wide, with a brown indument, unarmed or with some brown, to 1 cm long spines; peduncle 34-120 cm long, 3-5 mm diam. at apex, with a light brown indument, and armed with numerous brown, ca. 3 mm long spinules, and sometimes also a few black, to 1 cm long spines; spike 12-28 cm long, 4-10 mm diam., brown to black spinulose, with triads for ca. ½ of the length, distally with dyads of two staminate flowers or one pistillate and one staminate flower; flower groups deeply sunken. Staminate flowers orange or greenish yellow in bud, white at anthesis, 4-7 mm long, larger than the pistillale ones; sepals narrowly triangular, connate for up to ½ their length, 1.5-3 mm long; petals connate basally for 1-1.5 mm, valvate distally, 4-6.5 mm long; filaments ca. 1 mm long, anthers nearly square, 0.3-0.9 mm long; pistillode minute. Pistillate flowers 3.5-4.5 mm long; sepals free, imbricate, 2.7-3 mm long; petals briefly connate at base, valvate, 3.5-4.5 mm long; staminodial cup 1-1.5 mm tall, nearly truncate; pistil ca. 2 mm long, 0.6 mm diam., glabrous. Fruit ellipsoid, rostrate, ca. 10 mm long, 7 mm diam., red or orange when ripe; endocarp smooth. (Borchsenius, F. and Bernal, R. 1996. Aiphanes (Palmae). Flora Neotropica 70. pp 1-95)B

Materials Examined

  • COLOMBIA. ANTIOQUIA: Mun. de Frontino, Murrí, Cieneguetas, 1350-1650 m, 21 Mar 1982 (st), Bernal & Galeallo 268 (COL); Mun. De Urrao, quebrada La Agudelo, a tributary to Río Calles. 1300-1400 m, 15 Jun 1982, Bernal & Galeano 342 (COL). CHOCÓ: Mun. de El Carmen de Atraro. rd. Medellín-Quibdó km 150, vercda EI Doce, Río EI Aguilón, 680 m, Jul 1979, Galeano & Bernal 109 (COL); Mun. de San Jose del Palmar, basin of Río Torito, a tributary of Río Hábita, finca "Los Guaduales," 700 m. 7 Mar 1980 (fl , fr), Forero et al 6863 (MO); 20 Mar 1980 (fr), Forero el al. 7535 (COL, MO); same region. Alto del Oso, 1300 m. 14 Mar 1991 (fl), Bernal & Borclisenius 1961 (AAU, CHaCO, COL)
    ECUADOR. ESMERALDAS: San Marcos de los Coaiqueres and surrounding forests, on trail Chical-Tobar Donoso, 600-1000 m. 24 Nov 1983 (fl). Bar{od et al. 48916 (AAU. QCA. QCNE); Feb 1985 (fl), Øllgaard el al. 57620 (AAU, QCA, QCNE); new rd. from Lita toward San Lorenzo, km 15-18, 800-900 m, 14 Oct 1987 (st). Skov & Borchsenius 64747 (AAU, QCA, QCNE); 12 Nov 1987 (fl), Skov, Borchsenius. et al. 64818 (AAU, QCA. QCNE) (Borchsenius, F. and Bernal, R. 1996. Aiphanes (Palmae). Flora Neotropica 70. pp 1-95)B