Iriartea Ruiz & Pav., Fl. Peruv. Prodr. : 149 (1794)

Primary tabs

http://media.e-taxonomy.eu/palmae/photos/palm_tc_102648_5.jpg

Distribution

Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
Boliviapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Brazil Northpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Colombiapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Costa Ricapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Ecuadorpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Nicaraguapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Panamápresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Perupresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Venezuelapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
A single species, distributed from Costa Rica and Nicaragua southwards to Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Venezuela and Brazil. (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Discussion

  • Iriartea is distinguished from Socratea by the denserather than open cone of stilt roots, the closed staminateflowers with fewer stamens, the clavate rather than spinosepollen, and the very different pollination syndrome describedby Henderson (1985). (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Diagnosis

  • Robust solitary pinnate-leaved palm of humid rain forest in Central and South America, the stems with a dense cone of stilt roots and sometimes ventricose; leaflets are rhomboid, praemorse, longitudinally divided to give the whole leaf an ostrich-feather appearance; fruit has apical stigma remains and a lateral embryo. (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Biology And Ecology

  • Frequently gregarious in lowland tropical rain forest but reaching 1200 m, often as a distinct component of the forest canopy. Pollination is by bees (Henderson 1985). (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Common Name

  • Stilt palm, horn palm. (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Etymology

  • Commemorates Bernardo de Iriarte (1735–1814), Spanish diplomat. (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Uses

  • The outer part of the trunk is extremely hard and durable and is used in the construction of dwellings and in making spears. Wallace (1853) records the use of swollen sections of the trunk as canoes (see also Johnson [1998]). Henderson et al. (1995) recorded the use of stems for coffins in the Choco region of Colombia. For medicinal uses, see Plotkin and Balick (1984). (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Description

  • Solitary, robust, often very tall, unarmed, pleonanthic, monoecious tree palm. Stem erect, ± bellied, conspicuously ringed with leaf scars, bearing slender stilt roots forming a dense cone obscuring the stem base. Leaves rather few in number, pinnate, neatly abcising; sheaths forming a well-defined crownshaft; petiole rather short, adaxially channelled, abaxially rounded; rachis adaxially angled, abaxially rounded; leaflets large, asymmetrically deltoid to elliptic, the proximal margin entire for ca. 1/3 its length then praemorsely toothed, the distal margin entire for a shorter distance, then praemorsely toothed, ribs conspicuous sometimes with scaly margins, the main ribs diverging from the base to the margin, the whole leaflet usually irregularly split into linear segments displayed in different planes giving the leaf a plumose appearance, transverse veinlets not evident. Inflorescences solitary, infrafoliar, pendulous, strongly curved in bud, branching to 1 order distally to 2 orders proximally, protandrous; peduncle massive, ± circular in cross-section; prophyll short, tubular, 2-keeled, apically open; peduncular bracts 8–12, spirally arranged, tubular, the proximal several short, soon splitting, the distal very long, tubular, enclosing the inflorescence, all bracts variously hairy, eventually deciduous, leaving conspicuous, close annular scars; rachis equalling or slightly longer than the peduncle, bearing spirally arranged, minute, collar-like bracts; first-order branches digitately branched proximally, unbranched distally, bases of branches swollen; rachillae very long, moderately robust, bearing spirally arranged, slightly sunken, close triads throughout their length except at tips where bearing solitary or paired staminate flowers; rachilla bracts and floral bracteoles not evident. Staminate flowers ± symmetrical; sepals 3, distinct, gibbous, rounded, imbricate, bearing deciduous, bristle-like hairs; petals 3, 3–4 times longer than the sepals, valvate, ± boat-shaped and curved, the tips rounded to acute; stamens 9–20, filaments very short, slender, anthers elongate, acute to mucronate apically, latrorse; pistillode minute or lacking. Pollen ellipsoidal, ± bi-symmetric; aperture a distal sulcus; ectexine intectate, closely to densely gemmate, gemmae often coalesced into larger units, sometimes with large well-defined gemmae, surrounded by smaller gemmae, aperture margin similar; longest axis 31–35 µm [1/1]. Pistillate flowers smaller than the staminate; sepals 3, distinct, broadly imbricate; petals 3, distinct, broad, rounded, imbricate except at the triangular valvate tips; staminodes to 12, very small, tooth-like; gynoecium globose, trilocular, triovulate, stigmas 3, low, only 1 ovule normally maturing, basally attached, form unknown. Fruit mostly globose, yellow when ripe, stigmatic remains apical; epicarp smooth, mesocarp granular and fibrous, endocarp very thin. Seed globose, basally attached, hilum circular, raphe branches coarse anastomosing, endosperm homogeneous; embryo lateral. Germination adjacent-ligular; eophyll praemorse, undivided. Cytology: 2n = 32. (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Anatomy

  • Leaf (Tomlinson 1961, Roth 1990), root (Seubert 1998a, 1998b, Avalos 2004), stamen development (Uhl and Moore 1980), gynoecium (Uhl and Moore 1971), seed (Roth 1990). (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Fossil record

  • Pinnate leaf fragments from the Miocene of Peru are described as Iriartites tumbezensis (Berry 1919b), although the author comments that this is, “…a convenient form-genus for the remains of fossil palms that appear to belong to tribe Iriarteeae, but whose exact generic identity is uncertain.” Furthermore, material described as Sabalites from the Tertiary of Venezuela (Berry 1921b) resembles a leaf of Iriartea, but these fossils need to be restudied. Gardner (1882) recovered an abundance of pinnate palm leaves from the Middle Eocene Bournemouth Freshwater Beds, which he considered to resemble Iriartea more than any other genus (Chandler 1963). A ‘palm nut’ from the Miocene of the Panama Canal Zone (Gatun) is described as being, “very close to the endocarp of Iriartea” (Berry 1921a) and a seed (Iriartea collazoënsis) recorded from the Middle Oligocene of Puerto Rico is considered to resemble closely those of Arenga and Iriartea (Hollick 1928). The anatomy of a large specimen ofstem wood, Palmoxylon iriarteum, from the West Indies(Antigua), in the collection of the Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet,Stockholm, was described in detail by Stenzel (1897) whoconsidered it ancestral to Iriartea; no age is given. Comparisonsof palm stem wood or root to generic level should always beviewed with caution. (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Relationships

  • For relationships, see Iriartella. (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Taxonomic accounts

  • Henderson (1990). (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Use Record

  • Iriartea Ruiz & Pav.: Construcción de vivienda. (Ortiz, R., Uso, conocimiento y manejo de lagunos recursos naturales en el mundo Yucuna (Mirití-Paraná, Amazonas, Colombia).. 1994)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionHousesNot specifiedIndigenousYucunaColombia
  • Iriartea Ruiz & Pav.: Construction. Present in young fallows. (Denevan, W., and J.M. Treacy, Young managed Fallows at Brillo Nuevo. 1987)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    EnvironmentalAgroforestryEntire plantIndigenousBoraPeru
    ConstructionOtherNot specifiedIndigenousBoraPeru
    ConstructionHousesStemIndigenousBoraPeru
    EnvironmentalAgroforestryEntire plantIndigenousBoraPeru
  • Iriartea Ruiz & Pav.: Construction. Present in young fallows. (Denevan, W., and J.M. Treacy, Young managed Fallows at Brillo Nuevo. 1987)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionHousesStemIndigenousBoraPeru
    EnvironmentalAgroforestryEntire plantIndigenousBoraPeru
    ConstructionOtherNot specifiedIndigenousBoraPeru
    EnvironmentalAgroforestryEntire plantIndigenousBoraPeru
  • Iriartea Ruiz & Pav.: Crop in garden of household. (Salick, J., Ecological basis of Amuesha agriculture, Peruvian upper Amazon. 1989)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    EnvironmentalAgroforestryEntire plantIndigenousYaneshaPeru
  • Iriartea Ruiz & Pav.: Para el piso (lasicco), en cambio, generalmente se hace de tiras (dojofina) de chonta ( bo´mbo), Guilielma insignis; (Iriartea sp.) o anacco (Socratea sp.). (…) La cubierta es por ejemplo de la hoja de chonta (Bomboje): otros materiales son las hojas de cofage ( Geonoma macrostachys), shishije ("yarina", Phytelephas microcarpa R y P) o (…). (…). Bodoquera. El material es la chonta (bo´mbo- Iriartea sp.) otras maderas (…). (…). Para limpiar y secar el canal/ cañon de la bodoquera se usa un lavador de chonta (…). Otros. También se hacen "cetros", (…), hechos del tallo de la carludovica palmata o de chonta, (…). (…). Los hombres se dedican además a la fabricación de lanzas y cuchillos tipo " Bowie" de chonta. (Einzmann, H., Artesanía indígena del Ecuador: los Cofanes. 1988)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Utensils and ToolsHunting and fishingNot specifiedIndigenousCofánEcuador
    CulturalPersonal adornmentNot specifiedIndigenousCofánEcuador
    ConstructionHousesNot specifiedIndigenousCofánEcuador
    ConstructionThatchEntire leafIndigenousCofánEcuador
  • Iriartea Ruiz & Pav.: Planta comestible recolectada. Parte comestible, corazón. (Chirif, A., Salud y nutrición en sociedades nativas. 1978)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Human FoodFoodPalm heartIndigenousAguarunaPeru
  • Iriartea Ruiz & Pav.: Se utiliza su madera, aunque poco, por ser relativamente escasa, como "parket" de lujo. Se comen su chonta o cogollo y los "zures" del interior de su tronco. (Guallart, J.M., Nomenclatura Jibaro-Aguaruna de Palmeras en el Distrito de Cenepa.. 1968)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionHousesStemIndigenousAguarunaPeru
    OtherN/AStemIndigenousAguarunaPeru
    Human FoodFoodPalm heartIndigenousAguarunaPeru
  • Iriartea Ruiz & Pav.: The belly of the palm is used in Colombia to make containers for rubber. (Duke, J.A., Ethnobotanical observations on the Chocó Indians. 1970)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Utensils and ToolsDomesticStemIndigenousNot specifiedColombia
  • Iriartea Ruiz & Pav.: The dead trunks of all palm trees, including Ireartea, Euterpe, Mauritia, and Jessenia, all attract palm weevils. (Alexiades, M.N., Ethnobotany of the Ese Ejja: plants, health, and change in an amazonian society. 1999)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    OtherN/AStemIndigenousEse EjjaBolivia
    OtherN/AStemIndigenousEse EjjaPeru
  • Iriartea Ruiz & Pav.: Trunk is split and used for flooring. (Vickers, W.T., and T. Plowman, Useful plants of the Siona and Secoya indians of Eastern Ecuador. 1984)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionHousesStemIndigenousSiona-SecoyaEcuador
    ConstructionHousesStemIndigenousSiona-SecoyaEcuador
    FuelFire starterStemIndigenousSiona-SecoyaEcuador
  • Iriartea Ruiz & Pav.: trunk is split and used for flooring; also for kindling. (Vickers, W.T., and T. Plowman, Useful plants of the Siona and Secoya indians of Eastern Ecuador. 1984)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionHousesStemIndigenousSiona-SecoyaEcuador
    ConstructionHousesStemIndigenousSiona-SecoyaEcuador
    FuelFire starterStemIndigenousSiona-SecoyaEcuador
  • Iriartea Ruiz & Pav.: Trunks of this palm are split and used to make floors and walls of houses, platforms, fences, and laths for thatch. The leaf sheath is employed to make a kitchen container. It is folded into the shape of a small, flat, rectangular box or tray, and the folds are secured with two small wooden spits. (Glenboski, L.L., The Ethnobotany Of The Tukuna Indians. 1983)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    EnvironmentalFencesStemIndigenousTikunaColombia
    Utensils and ToolsDomesticLeaf sheathIndigenousTikunaColombia
    ConstructionHousesStemIndigenousTikunaColombia
  • Iriartea Ruiz & Pav.: Uso alimenticio. Cogollo y frutos. (...). Los materiales más utilizados para las grandes piezas del armazón,(...), son dos especies de palmeras: el tuntuam (Iriartea sp.) y ampaki (Iriartea ventricosa Mart.) y (...). (Descola, P., La selva culta- Simbolismo y praxis en la ecología de los Achuar. 1989)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Human FoodBeveragesPalm heartIndigenousAchuarEcuador
    Human FoodFoodFruitsIndigenousAchuarEcuador
    ConstructionHousesStemIndigenousAchuarEcuador

Bibliography

A. J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008
B. World Checklist of Arecaceae