Neonicholsonia watsonii Dammer, Gard. Chron. , III, 30: 179 (1901)

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Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (
Costa Ricapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Honduraspresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Nicaraguapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Panamápresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Atlantic and Pacific slopes in Honduras (Gracias a Dios), Nicaragua (Zelaya), Costa Rica (Alajuela, Guanacaste, Puntarenas), and Panama (Chiriquí); understory of lowland rain forests, usually at low elevations but occasionally to 600 m or more, on slopes and ridges of low hills. (Gloria Galeano & A. Henderson, Flora Neotropica Monograph 72)A

Common Name

  • Costa Rica: coladegallo. (Gloria Galeano & A. Henderson, Flora Neotropica Monograph 72)A


  • Stems solitary, very shortly aerial, 10-15(-100) cm long, with prominent roots visible at base.
    Leaves 4-9, spreading; sheath closed, not forming a crownshaft, 20-30 cm long including a ligule 1-2 cm long; petiole 0.24-1 m long; rachis 1-1.2 m long; pinnae 11-15 per side, regularly spaced, alternate, linear-lanceolate, aristate, horizontally spreading in the same plane, with prominent mid vein, lacking scales and punctations abaxially; basal pinna 22-37 x 0.5-2.5 cm; middle pinnae 32-49 x 2.5-5.5 cm; apical pinna 17-27 x 1-1.5 cm.
    Inflorescences interfoliar, erect in bud and at anthesis; peduncle 67-98 cm long, 0.5 cm diam., terete, with a few, brown, appressed scales; prophyll 18-45 cm long, 1.5-2 cm diam., flattened; peduncular bract 0.7-1 m long including a 2- 3 cm long umbo, 1-1.5 cm diam., ± terete; rachis absent; rachilla 27-51 cm long, 3 mm diam. at anthesis, 4 mm diam. in fruit , with dense to loose clusters of intertwined, whitish, flexuous, hairs to 0.3 mm long; triads slightly sunken in rachilla, very closely spaced; flowers in triads for ca. ? the length of rachilla, paired or solitary staminate distally; triad bracteole raised, rounded; first flower bracteole apiculate, second and third flower bracteoles prominent, apiculate, 0.7 mm high; staminate flowers 4-5 mm long; sepals connate into a prominently 3-lobed cupule, 2-3 mm long; petals lanceolate, 4-5 mm long; filaments slightly connate proximally, free distally, 3 longer (3.5 mm long) and 3 shorter (2.5 mm long); anthers 3 mm long; pistillode trifid , 1-2 mm long; pistillale flowers 4.5 mm long; sepals deltate, 3 mm long; petals deltate, 4 mm long; fruits ellipsoid-oblong, 0.9-1 cm long, 0.5-0.6 cm diam., the stigmatic remains apical; epicarp black; seeds ± globose, ca. 5 mm diam.; endosperm deeply ruminate; eophyll pinnale with short rachis. (Gloria Galeano & A. Henderson, Flora Neotropica Monograph 72)A

Materials Examined

  • HONDURAS. GRACIAS ADIOS: Krautara, Rio Patuca, 15°02'N, 84°40'W, House s.n. (K).
    NICARAGUA. ZELAYA: Cerro El Inocente. ca. 13°45'N, 85°W, 9 Mar 1978, Stevens 6797 (BH, US); trail from Cerro Saslaya to San José del Hormiguero, 13°44'N, 84°57'W, 13 Mar 1978, Stevens 7072 (US).
    COSTA RICA. AlAJUELA: Plains of San Carlos, 13 Apr 1903, Cook & Doyle 58 (US); rd. between Cañas and Upala, 10 km N of Bijagua, 200 m, 26 Jun 1976, Croat 36463 (K); vic. of Guatuso de San Rafael, 10°43'N, 84°48'W, 80-100 m, 4 Aug 1949, Holm & Iltis 908 (BH); Las Flores, Hacienda Tenorio, 22 Apr 1953, Moore 6734 (BH, K); 5.6 km beyond Tronadora toward Arenal, 3 Mar 1974, Read & Daniels 7412 (US).
    GUANACASTE: Río Las Flores, Hacienda Montezuma, 10°40'N, 85°04'W, 450 m, 25 Jan 1985, Grayum et al. 4876 (NY); Parque Rincón de la Vieja, Hacienda Santa María, 10°48'N, 85°19'W, 10 Oct 1987, Herrera & Rivera 828 (K); Tilarán, 10-31 Jan 1926, Standley & Valerio 44254 (US); Naranjos Agrios, 29 Jan 1926, Standley & Valerio 46496 (US); 3 km N of Río Naranjo, 10°42'N, 85°04'W, 500 m, 5 Jan 1975, Taylor 18105 (NY).
    PUNTARENAS: 2 km W of Palmar Norte, 08°58'N, 83°28'W, 300 m, 24 May 1986, de Nevers et al. 7748 (NY); Fila de Cal, between Las Cruces and Nelly, l00-1400m 7 Jan 1983, Gómez 19656, 19657 (K); trail from Golfito airport to Quebrada Naranjal, 28 Dec 1984, Henderson 76 (K, NY); Golfito, nr. the airstrip, Golfo Dulce, 14 Sep 1964, Lems, 64091402 (NY); Fila de Cal, on rd. from San Vito de Java to Corredor, between Agua Buena and Calero, ca. 800 m, 30 Jan 1967, Moore & Parthasarathy 9419 (BH); above Centro Picnic and Water Tower, Golfito, 15 Nov 1973, Moore & McAlpin s.n. (BH); rd. from Las Cruces to Panama border, 3 km from Río Caña, 14 Dec 1961, Read 641 (BH); above Villa Neily on rd. from Golfito to San Vito de Java, Mar 1976, Wilson 70-265 (BH).
    PANAMA. CHIRIQUI: Cerro de la Plata, nr. San Felix, 17 Dec 1911, Pittier 5167 (US). (Gloria Galeano & A. Henderson, Flora Neotropica Monograph 72)A


    A. Gloria Galeano & A. Henderson, Flora Neotropica Monograph 72
    B. World Checklist of Arecaceae