Eremospatha cuspidata (G.Mann & H.Wendl.) H.Wendl., Palmiers : 244 (1878)

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Distribution

Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
Angolapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Cameroonpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Central African Republicpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Congopresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Equatorial Guineapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Gabonpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Zairepresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Zambiapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
This species is relatively uncommon and is restricted to the forest areas of the Congo Basin. (T.C.H Sunderland, A taxonomic revision of the rattans of Africa (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) in Phytotaxa 51. 2012)A

Biology And Ecology

  • Eremospatha cuspidata is highly unusual amongst the rattans of African in that it is commonly found in the deep white sand savannah areas or "praderas", characteristic of the coastal forests of the Congo Basin where it forms dense, scrambling thickets. However, in some areas, E. cuspidata has also been encountered in gap vegetation in forest. (T.C.H Sunderland, A taxonomic revision of the rattans of Africa (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) in Phytotaxa 51. 2012)A

Conservation

  • Least concern (LC). (T.C.H Sunderland, A taxonomic revision of the rattans of Africa (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) in Phytotaxa 51. 2012)A

Etymology

  • (Latin) refers to finely apiculate leaflet apex. (T.C.H Sunderland, A taxonomic revision of the rattans of Africa (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) in Phytotaxa 51. 2012)A

Description

  • Clustered slender palm climbing to 12-15m. Stems circular in cross-section, without sheaths, 10-15 mm in diameter, with 16-25 mm; internodes 11-15 cm long. Leaf sheath longitudinally striate sparsely covered with brown-black indumentum; ocrea obliquely truncate, extending ca.1 cm above the rachis; knee absent. Leaves sessile, up to 2 m long; rachis 1-1.3 m long, flattened on upper surface, rounded below, becoming trapezoid then rounded in cross section distally, armed along the margins with inequidistant, reflexed, bulbous-based spines, becoming sparsely armed distally, indumentum absent; cirrus 50-75 cm long, unarmed; leaflets up to 15-20 on each side of the rachis, linear-lanceolate, abruptly contracted at the base, with a fine 0.8-1.2 cm long (rarely 3 cm long) apiculum at the apex, 22-30 cm long × 1.6-2 (rarely 3 cm) broad at the widest point, discolorous, adaxially mid-green, abaxially light green, armed along the margins with inequidistant abrupt black-tipped spines, 5-7 moderately conspicuous transverse veinlets 2-3 mm apart; lowermost leaflets smaller than the rest, linear-ovate, reflexed and laxly swept back across stem; acanthophylls in pairs ca.3 cm long, at 45° angle to cirrus. Inflorescence glabrous, 30-38 cm long, rarely <20 cm, peduncle 10-18 cm long; rachis 20-30 cm, rarely <20 cm, erect or horizontal; rachillae distichous, 10-12 on each side, 5-10-12 cm long, decreasing distally; rachis bracts acuminate <3 mm long, decreasing distally, adnate to the inflorescence axis for 1-1.2 cm; flower cluster subtended by <1 mm-long incomplete bracts. Flowers borne in close pairs, very sweetly scented at anthesis; calyx 4-5 mm × 6 mm wide at the mouth, only very shallowly lobed (<1 mm); corolla 0.7-1 cm × 0.4-0.5 mm, divided to ¼ of its length; stamens united into 4-6 mm long epipetalous ring; free filaments <0.5 mm; anthers <1 mm; ovary 3-4 mm × 2.2.5 mm tipped by ca.2.5 mm long style. Fruit at maturity 1-seeded, ± cylindrical, 2-2.4 cm × 1.6-2 cm with 18-21 rows of vertical scales. Seed compressed, 1.6-2 cm long × 0.8-1 cm wide × 0.6-0.8 cm deep, flattened on one side with a shallow linear depression, embryo lateral, raised, opposite the flattened side. (T.C.H Sunderland, A taxonomic revision of the rattans of Africa (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) in Phytotaxa 51. 2012)A

Materials Examined

  • CAMEROON: Bruneau 1074, Mt Kupe, SW Province (04º48N:09º42E) sterile, October 26, 1995 (K!); Mildbraed 9546, Buea-Douala, sterile, June 5, 1914 (K!); CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC: Fay 4021, Manovo-St Floris National Park (09º29N:21º17E) sterile, December 30, 1982 (K!); EQUATORIAL GUINEA: Eneme & Lejoly 113, Ndote Reserve (01º20N: 09º28E) Fl., August 19, 1987 (EG!); Sunderland 1792, near village of Etembue (01º16N:09º26E) Fr., March 13, 1997 (K!, EG!, BH!); Sunderland 1909, near village of Etembue (01º16N:09º26E) Fr., March 28, 1998 (K!, EG!, WAG!); Sunderland 1922, near village of Etembue (01º16N:09º26E) Fl., April 8, 1998 (K!, EG!, WAG!); GABON: Breteler & van Raalte 5557, SE of Port Gentil (00º40S:08º50E) Fl., November 16, 1968 (MO!); Dybowski 140, Fl. (FI!); Mann 1043, Gaboon River (00º19N:09º29E) Fl. & Fr., July 1861 (K!); Reitsma 2889, 20km N of Libreville (00º35N:09º22E) Fr., January 29, 1987 (WAG!, LBR!); DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO: Desenfous 2023, Kaniama, Haut Lomami (06º05S:22º20E) Fl., September 1951 (BR!); Malaisse 14159, Mushindi River (09º30S:23º13E) sterile, February 19, 1987 (BR!); Schmitz 5617, 66km from Kinda (09º17S:25º03E) Fr., September 20, 1957 (BR!); ANGOLA: Milne-Redhead 4219, River Monu, sterile, 1937 (K!); ZAMBIA: Loverage 931, Mwinilunga District (11º44S:24º26E) sterile, June 12, 1963 (K!); Mutimushi 3372, Mwinilunga District (11º44S:24º26E) sterile, May 19, 1969 (K!) (T.C.H Sunderland, A taxonomic revision of the rattans of Africa (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) in Phytotaxa 51. 2012)A

Bibliography

    A. T.C.H Sunderland, A taxonomic revision of the rattans of Africa (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) in Phytotaxa 51. 2012
    B. World Checklist of Arecaceae