Pholidostachys synanthera (Mart.) H.E.Moore, Taxon 18: 231 (1969)

Primary tabs

http://media.e-taxonomy.eu/palmae/photos/palm_tc_152727_3.jpg

Distribution

Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
Brazil North present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Colombia present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Ecuador present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Peru present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Colombia to Peru, on both sides of the Andes, mostly at elevations between 500 and 1500 m. (Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador)A

Discussion

  • Some differences are noted between individuals from the two sides of the Andes. Western plants are very large, with the stem to 12 m tall and 8-15 cm in diameter, and their inflorescences have a long peduncle, almost no rachis, and simple branches. Eastern plants are smaller, typically with the stem less than 5 m tall and only 5-8 cm in diameter, and their inflorescences have a shorter peduncle, a 15-40 cm long rachis, and the lower branches usually bifurcate. (Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador)A
  • Pholidostachys synanthera is the most widespread species in the genus.

    Subspecific variation. There are three geographically separate populations of Pholidostachys synanthera. One occurs at 146(90-250) m elevation in the western Amazon region; the second on eastern Andean slopes at 1040(400-1620) m elevation; and the third on the Cordilleras Central and Oriental in Colombia at 1206(550-1750) m elevation. Only three variables (rachis length, number of divisions, apical pinna angle) are significantly different between the two Andean populations (t-test, P <0.05), and they are here treated as one. Between this expanded Andean population and the Amazon population, 11 variables (stem height, stem diameter, leaf number, rachis length, rachis width, number of divisions, basal pinna length, basal pinna angle, apical pinna length, apical pinna width, rachillae width) are significantly different (t-test, P <0.05). Most of these variables are from stems and leaves, and only one from inflorescences. Based on these results, Amazon and Andean populations are recognized as subspecies (subspp. robusta, synanthera). (Henderson, A.J., A revision of Pholidostachys (Arecaceae) in Phytotaxa 43. 2012)C

Description

  • Understorey or subcanopy palm. Stem solitary, 2-12 m tall, 6-15 cm in diameter, with relatively soft wood, usually covered distally with persistent leaf sheathes. Leaves 15-25 or rarely more in the crown; petiole to 1.5 m long; blade 100-220 cm long, divided into 8-25 unequal pinnae on each side, the central ones 50-80 cm long and 5-16 cm wide. Inflorescence branched 1-2 times; peduncle 35-100 cm long, rarely longer, with a thick, velvety, reddish brown indument when young; rachis 2-40 cm long; branches 5-16, the flower bearing part 20-50 cm long and 6-10 mm in diameter, with flower pits in 10-12 longitudinal rows. Fruits black, elongate, 10-15 mm long and 8-10 mm in diameter. (Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador)A
  • Stems 3.3(1.0-6.0) m long, 5.6(3.0-22.0) cm diameter, solitary. Leaves 15(4-27) per stem; sheaths 32.8(15.0-74.0) cm long; petioles 70.1(24.0-136.0) cm long; rachises 84.0(48.0-124.0) cm long, 8.1(3.6-12.6) mm diameter; pinnae 10(4-18) per side of rachis; basal pinna 49.6(26.5-67.5) cm, long, 1.7(0.2-7.6) cm wide, forming an angle of 50(27-72)° with the rachis; apical pinna 45.0(23.0-65.0) cm long, 10.5(2.5-22.5) cm wide, forming an angle of 15(9-24)° with the rachis. Inflorescences branched 1-2 orders, with a well developed peduncle and rachis, and several rachillae, these spreading at anthesis; prophylls and peduncular bracts woody, not covering rachillae at anthesis; prophylls 38.0(25.5-55.0) cm long; peduncular bracts 32.1(19.0-41.0) cm long, inserted 8.6(5.0-12.5) cm above the prophyll; peduncles 44.8(20.0-70.0) cm long, 11.4(5.3-19.1) mm diameter; rachilla 12(4-25), 28.5(14.0-56.0) cm long, 6.1(3.7-10.3) mm diameter; proximal lips of flower pits regularly shaped, rounded, not covering pits before anthesis, recurved fruits scarcely compressed, ellipsoid, with obscure longitudinal ridges, 14.3(10.2-17.7) mm long, 8.4(6.1-10.5) mm diameter. (Henderson, A.J., A revision of Pholidostachys (Arecaceae) in Phytotaxa 43. 2012)C

Use Record

  • Pholidostachys synanthera (Mart.) H.E.Moore: Es la más buscada para techos duraderos. (Mundo Shuar, Las plantas. 1977)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionThatchEntire leafIndigenousShuarEcuador
  • Pholidostachys synanthera (Mart.) H.E.Moore: Euterpe precatoria (shimbe), growing between 900 and 1900 m, Pholidostachys synanthera (palma paja cambana), growing between 900 and 1400 m, and Wettinia cf. maynensis (palma) found at around 1000 m, all have edible palm hearts. (Van den Eynden, V., E. Cueva, and O. Cabrera, Edible palms of Southern Ecuador. 2004)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Human FoodFoodPalm heartMestizoN/AEcuador
  • Pholidostachys synanthera (Mart.) H.E.Moore: Hojas. Construcción. (Cerón, C.E., Etnobiología de los Cofanes de Dureno, provincia de Sucumbíos, Ecuador. 1995)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionThatchEntire leafIndigenousShuarEcuador
  • Pholidostachys synanthera (Mart.) H.E.Moore: House posts (2); thatch (14) (Byg, A. and H. Balslev, Factors affecting local knowledge of palms in Nangaritza valley, Southeastern Ecuador. 2004)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionThatchEntire leafNot identifiedN/AEcuador
    ConstructionHousesStemNot identifiedN/AEcuador
  • Pholidostachys synanthera (Mart.) H.E.Moore: LA CASA. A este punto se colocan los tirantes, destinados a sostener las hojas. Estos se amarran a la cumbrera y a las vigas de distintas maneras. La distancia entre uno y otro es más o menos de 70 cms. Cuando la paja que se utiliza es "kampanak" son necesarias unas tiritas de transversales.(…). Las hojas de turuji y de kampanak se las debe doblar en la mitad. (Bianchi, C., Artesanías y técnicas Shuar. 1982)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionThatchEntire leafIndigenousShuarEcuador
  • Pholidostachys synanthera (Mart.) H.E.Moore: Las hojas se utilizan para techar viviendas cuando no hay hojas de pui (Lepidocaryum tenue) y pueden durar hasta 4-5 años. Toda la planta se utiliza para extraer sal. (Galeano, G., Las palmas de la región de Araracuara. 1992)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionThatchEntire leafNot identifiedN/AColombia
    CulturalRecreationalEntire plantNot identifiedN/AColombia
  • Pholidostachys synanthera (Mart.) H.E.Moore: Leaves are the ones most commonly used for thatch. (Báez, S., and Å. Backevall, Dictionary of plants used by the Shuar of Makuma and Mutints. 1998)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionThatchEntire leafIndigenousShuarEcuador
  • Pholidostachys synanthera (Mart.) H.E.Moore: Leaves are used for thach. Used medicinally to cure burns: the base of the rachis is carnised, rasped and placed on the affected area. (Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionThatchEntire leafIndigenousShuarEcuador
    Medicinal and VeterinarySkin and subcutaneous tissueLeaf rachisNot identifiedN/AEcuador
  • Pholidostachys synanthera (Mart.) H.E.Moore: Pholidostachys synanthera (Mart.) H.E.Moore Español: Palmiche Usos: Construcción — las hojas son utilizadas en la construcción de los techos para las viviendas. Alimenticio — Ocasionalmente los frutos maduros y el palmito son consumidos. Comunidad: 7, 9, 12–16, 19–21, 23–27, 29, 30. Voucher: H. Balslev 7452. (Balslev, H., C. Grandez, et al., Useful palms (Arecaceae) near Iquitos, Peruvian Amazon. 2008)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Human FoodFoodFruitsNot identifiedN/APeru
    Human FoodFoodPalm heartNot identifiedN/APeru
    ConstructionThatchEntire leafNot identifiedN/APeru
  • Pholidostachys synanthera (Mart.) H.E.Moore: Roof. Leaf. (Kvist, L., M.K. Andersen, J. Stagegaard, M. Hesselsoe, and C. Llapapasca, Extraction from woody plants in flood plain communities in Amazonian Peru: use, choice, evaluation and conservation status of resoruces. 2001)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionThatchEntire leafMestizoN/APeru
  • Pholidostachys synanthera (Mart.) H.E.Moore: Sirve para entechar, se saca sal del cogollo. (Kronik, J. et al., Fééjahisuu. Palmas de los Nietos de la Tierra y Montaña Verde del Centro. 1999)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    CulturalRecreationalPalm heartIndigenousMuinaneColombia
    ConstructionThatchEntire leafIndigenousMuinaneColombia
  • Pholidostachys synanthera (Mart.) H.E.Moore: Thatching. (Stagegaard, J., M. Sørensen, and L.P. Kvist, Estimations of the importance of plant resources extracted by inhabitants of the Peruvian Amazon flood plains. 2002)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionThatchEntire leafMestizoN/APeru
  • Pholidostachys synanthera (Mart.) H.E.Moore: The Shuar thatch their roofs with the leaves. The eat the plant´s apical meristems (hearts) and make ayampakus from the leaves. Birds, especially pavas ( Cracidae spp.), eat the fruits. (Bennett, B.C., M.A. Baker, and P. Gómez-Andrade, Ethnobotany of the Shuar of Eastern Ecuador. 2002)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Utensils and ToolsWrappersEntire leafIndigenousShuarEcuador
    Human FoodFoodPalm heartIndigenousShuarEcuador
    Animal FoodWildlife attractantFruitsIndigenousShuarEcuador
    ConstructionThatchEntire leafIndigenousShuarEcuador

Bibliography

    A. Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador
    B. World Checklist of Arecaceae
    C. Henderson, A.J., A revision of Pholidostachys (Arecaceae) in Phytotaxa 43. 2012