Pholidostachys synanthera (Mart.) H.E.Moore, Taxon 18: 231 (1969)

Primary tabs

http://media.e-taxonomy.eu/palmae/photos/palm_tc_152727_3.jpg

Distribution

Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
Brazil Northpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Colombiapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Ecuadorpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B

Discussion

  • Some differences are noted between individuals from the two sides of the Andes. Western plants are very large, with the stem to 12 m tall and 8-15 cm in diameter, and their inflorescences have a long peduncle, almost no rachis, and simple branches. Eastern plants are smaller, typically with the stem less than 5 m tall and only 5-8 cm in diameter, and their inflorescences have a shorter peduncle, a 15-40 cm long rachis, and the lower branches usually bifurcate. (Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador)A
  • Pholidostachys synanthera is the most widespread species in the genus.

    Subspecific variation. There are three geographically separate populations of Pholidostachys synanthera. One occurs at 146(90-250) m elevation in the western Amazon region; the second on eastern Andean slopes at 1040(400-1620) m elevation; and the third on the Cordilleras Central and Oriental in Colombia at 1206(550-1750) m elevation. Only three variables (rachis length, number of divisions, apical pinna angle) are significantly different between the two Andean populations (t-test, P <0.05), and they are here treated as one. Between this expanded Andean population and the Amazon population, 11 variables (stem height, stem diameter, leaf number, rachis length, rachis width, number of divisions, basal pinna length, basal pinna angle, apical pinna length, apical pinna width, rachillae width) are significantly different (t-test, P <0.05). Most of these variables are from stems and leaves, and only one from inflorescences. Based on these results, Amazon and Andean populations are recognized as subspecies (subspp. robusta, synanthera). (Henderson, A.J., A revision of Pholidostachys (Arecaceae) in Phytotaxa 43. 2012)C

Description

  • Understorey or subcanopy palm. Stem solitary, 2-12 m tall, 6-15 cm in diameter, with relatively soft wood, usually covered distally with persistent leaf sheathes. Leaves 15-25 or rarely more in the crown; petiole to 1.5 m long; blade 100-220 cm long, divided into 8-25 unequal pinnae on each side, the central ones 50-80 cm long and 5-16 cm wide. Inflorescence branched 1-2 times; peduncle 35-100 cm long, rarely longer, with a thick, velvety, reddish brown indument when young; rachis 2-40 cm long; branches 5-16, the flower bearing part 20-50 cm long and 6-10 mm in diameter, with flower pits in 10-12 longitudinal rows. Fruits black, elongate, 10-15 mm long and 8-10 mm in diameter. (Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador)A
  • Stems 3.3(1.0-6.0) m long, 5.6(3.0-22.0) cm diameter, solitary. Leaves 15(4-27) per stem; sheaths 32.8(15.0-74.0) cm long; petioles 70.1(24.0-136.0) cm long; rachises 84.0(48.0-124.0) cm long, 8.1(3.6-12.6) mm diameter; pinnae 10(4-18) per side of rachis; basal pinna 49.6(26.5-67.5) cm, long, 1.7(0.2-7.6) cm wide, forming an angle of 50(27-72)° with the rachis; apical pinna 45.0(23.0-65.0) cm long, 10.5(2.5-22.5) cm wide, forming an angle of 15(9-24)° with the rachis. Inflorescences branched 1-2 orders, with a well developed peduncle and rachis, and several rachillae, these spreading at anthesis; prophylls and peduncular bracts woody, not covering rachillae at anthesis; prophylls 38.0(25.5-55.0) cm long; peduncular bracts 32.1(19.0-41.0) cm long, inserted 8.6(5.0-12.5) cm above the prophyll; peduncles 44.8(20.0-70.0) cm long, 11.4(5.3-19.1) mm diameter; rachilla 12(4-25), 28.5(14.0-56.0) cm long, 6.1(3.7-10.3) mm diameter; proximal lips of flower pits regularly shaped, rounded, not covering pits before anthesis, recurved fruits scarcely compressed, ellipsoid, with obscure longitudinal ridges, 14.3(10.2-17.7) mm long, 8.4(6.1-10.5) mm diameter. (Henderson, A.J., A revision of Pholidostachys (Arecaceae) in Phytotaxa 43. 2012)C

Use Record