Calamus suaveolens W.J.Baker & J.Dransf., Kew Bull. 59: 69 (2004)

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Distribution

Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
Sulawesi present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
North and central Sulawesi (W.J. Baker & J. Dransfield, Calamus suaveolens — a new rattan from Sulawesi. 2004)A

Discussion

  • Calamus suaveolens is easily recognised by a combination of characters: the irregular arrangement of solitary and divergent pairs of leaflets, the leaf sheath and knee densely armed with black triangular spines, the cirrus with irregularly arranged grapnel spines, the heavily armed major bracts on the primary axis of the inflorescence and the relatively large, heavily armed, persistent ocrea. Some characters are shared with other members of the C. aruensis complex in New Guinea and the Pacific, for example, C. pachypus W. J. Baker et al., C. vitiensis Warb. ex Becc. and C. dasyacanthus W. J. Baker et al. display similar leaflet arrangements, C. aruensis bears similar cirrus spines and the sheath spine morphology resembles that of C. aruensis and C. vitiensis. However, none of them possesses inflorescences that are densely armed throughout (in fact, most bear largely unarmed inflorescences) or so conspicuous an ocrea. Calamus suaveolens is so named on account of the strikingly sweet odour of the flowers at anthesis observed by one of us (JD) when collecting two of the three known specimens (W.J. Baker & J. Dransfield, Calamus suaveolens — a new rattan from Sulawesi. 2004)A

Diagnosis

  • C. aruensi affinis sed foliolis singulariter vel binatim non regulatim dispositis, geniculis et vaginis foliorum spinis triangularibus dense tectis (geniculum C. aruensi raro spinosum), inflorescentia spinosa non raro spinosa, ocrea 14 - 23 mm (vice 3 - 9 mm) differt (W.J. Baker & J. Dransfield, Calamus suaveolens — a new rattan from Sulawesi. 2004)A

Biology And Ecology

  • Hill forest and lower montane forest, on steep slopes, 780 - 1350 m (W.J. Baker & J. Dransfield, Calamus suaveolens — a new rattan from Sulawesi. 2004)A

Conservation

  • Data deficient (W.J. Baker & J. Dransfield, Calamus suaveolens — a new rattan from Sulawesi. 2004)A

Common Name

  • Not recorded (W.J. Baker & J. Dransfield, Calamus suaveolens — a new rattan from Sulawesi. 2004)A

Uses

  • Not recorded (W.J. Baker & J. Dransfield, Calamus suaveolens — a new rattan from Sulawesi. 2004)A

Description

  • Robust, solitary rattan climbing to 10 m. Stem with sheaths 15 - 40 mm diam., without sheaths 11 - 20 mm diam.; internodes 30 - 40 cm. Leaf cirrate, c. 4.3 m long including cirrus and petiole; sheath dark green, with sparse to abundant, caducous indumentum of minute, irregular, brown and white scales, spines numerous, 2 - 25 x 0.5 - 5 mm, black, planar, triangular, stiff, slightly deflexed, scattered evenly throughout sheath, spine bases slightly swollen adaxially, sheath mouth densely armed; knee 60 - 90 mm long, 18 - 21 mm wide, moderately to densely armed, spines and indumentum as on sheath; ocrea 14 - 23 mm, forming a hard, woody, persistent flange, divergent from stem, armed with bristle-like spines and spines as on sheath, base of ocrea extending along petiole to an acute angle; flagellum absent; petiole 20-30 mm, 14-17 mm wide and 7-8 mm thick at base, flat adaxially, rounded abaxially, indumentum as on sheath, with numerous short triangular spines; rachis up to 3 m, with few, very small, triangular spines, with irregularly-arranged grapnel spines abaxially; leaflets 13 - 15 each side of rachis, irregularly arranged in divergent pairs and solitarily, broadly lanceolate, cucullate, longest leaflets near middle of leaf, 28 - 40 x 6.5 - 9 cm, apical leaflets 19 - 35 x 1.8 - 3 cm, distal leaflets widely spaced, basal leaflets small and apparently reflexing, with few bristles 1 - 2.5 mm towards base of adaxial surface of mid-rib and rarely on other major veins, unarmed abaxially, leaflet margins unarmed or with very few bristles 1 - 1.5 mm, increasing in density towards leaflet apex, transverse veinlets moderately inconspicuous; cirrus 1.2 - 2 m, cirrus grapnel spines arranged irregularly. Staminate inflorescence up to 3.8 m long including c. 35 cm sterile tip, branched to 3 orders; prophyll 12 - 16.5 x 1 - 1.3 cm, strictly tubular, with 2 keels, prophyll mouth entire, with narrow, acute, triangular limb to one side, indumentum as on sheath, densely armed with spines 1 - 18 mm long, similar to spines on sheath; peduncular bracts absent (always?), rachis bracts 19 - 26.5 x 0.7 - 1.5 cm, similar to prophyll, densely armed towards apex as prophyll; primary branches up to c. 12, to 28 cm long, 31 - 38 cm apart, strongly recurving, with up to c. 250 rachillae, bracts on primary and secondary branches funnel-shaped; rachillae 4 - 20 x c. 1 mm, sublinear, glabrous; rachilla bracts c. 0.5 x 1.2 mm, subdistichous, glabrous; floral bracteole c. 0.8 x 1 mm. Staminate flowers 3.3 - 4.1 x 1.8-2 mm in bud near anthesis, very sweetly scented; calyx 1.8 - 2 mm diam., tubular in basal 1 mm, with 3 lobes 0.7 - 1 x 1 - 1.2 mm, glabrous; corolla 3 - 3.6 x 1.8-2 mm in bud, scarcely united at base, glabrous; stamens 6, filaments 1.5 - 1.8 x 0.3 mm, anthers 1.6 - 2.1 x 0.4 mm; pistillode inconspicuous. Pistillate inflorescence similar to staminate inflorescence, but branched to 2 orders; primary branches c. 25 cm long, strongly recurving, with c. 26 rachillae, bracts on primary branch funnel-shaped; rachillae 25 - 70 x 2 mm, sublinear or irregular; rachilla bracts c. 1.2 x 1.7 mm, subdistichous, glabrous; proximal floral bracteole obscured by distal bracteole, distal floral bracteole 1.3 -1.5 x 1.5 mm, glabrous, scar from sterile staminate flower c. 0.2 mm diam. Pistillate flowers c. 3-3.5 x 2 mm at anthesis, very sweetly scented; calyx c. 2 mm diam., tubular in basal c. 2 - 2.2 mm, with 3 lobes to c. 0.9 x 1 mm, glabrous; corolla c. 2.4 x 1.5 mm, tubular in basal c. 1.3 - 2 mm, with 3 lobes to c. 1.1 - 1.2 x 1 mm, glabrous; staminodes 6, staminodal ring c. 1 mm high; gynoecium 1.8 - 2 x 1.1 - 1.4 mm, ovoid, stigmas 0.6 - 0.8 mm long. Sterile staminate flowers not seen. Fruit globose, c. 8 x 6 mm including beak 1.5 mm (available material unripe), with c. 20 longitudinal rows of shallowly channelled scales with entire, but uneven margins. Seed (sarcotesta removed) c. 6 x 4 x 4 mm (available material unripe), globose, with a deep, narrow pit on one side, the surface covered with numerous deep pits and irregular channels; endosperm homogeneous; embryo basal. Fig. 1 (W.J. Baker & J. Dransfield, Calamus suaveolens — a new rattan from Sulawesi. 2004)A

Materials Examined

  • INDONESIA. Sulawesi: N Sulawesi, Bolaang Mongondow, Kotamobagu, Gunung Ambang, Oct. 1973, Dransfield & Mogea JD 3855 (BH, BO, K!, L), Dransfield & Mogea JD 3858 (BH, BO, K!, L, type). C Sulawesi: Mt Roroka Timbu, W slope, c. 80 km SSE of Palu, May 1979, de Vogel 5283 (L!) (W.J. Baker & J. Dransfield, Calamus suaveolens — a new rattan from Sulawesi. 2004)A

Bibliography

    A. W.J. Baker & J. Dransfield, Calamus suaveolens — a new rattan from Sulawesi. 2004
    B. World Checklist of Arecaceae