Calamus flagellum var. flagellum

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Distribution

Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
Assam present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Bangladesh present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
China South-Central present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
East Himalaya present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Laos present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Myanmar present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Thailand present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Tibet present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Vietnam present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
India (North-east), Myanmar, China (South and South-east Yunnan), Thailand (North), Laos (North) and Vietnam (northern part). Also Bangladesh (Basu 1992). See also following variety. (T. Evans & K. Sengdala & B. Thammavong & O.V. Viengkham & J. Dransfield, A Synopsis of the Rattans (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) of Laos and Neighbouring Parts of Indochina. 2002)A

Discussion

  • Beccari (1908) tentatively described the variety karinensis on the basis of a single specimen, stating that with further material it may prove to be either synonymous with the typical form or a full species. Pei et al. (1989) raised karinensis to species rank on the basis of five specimens from Yunnan, although unfortunately they had not had access to the types (Chen Sanyang, pers. comm. 1999). Although C. karinensis was considered a 'sp. nov.' by the authors it is probably better treated as a 'stat. nov.' since they clearly intended to refer to the same taxon as Beccari (1908). The correct type is thus that of the basionym. Table 1 outlines the published diagnostic features of the three taxa. Criterion 1 is clearly not diagnostic even as stated - both forms can show seriate spines. Criteria 3, 4, 5 and 6 are vague and appear impossible to apply in a consistent, objective way. Criteria 3 - 7 apply only to females and 5 - 7 require mature fruit. In the present study extensive material, old and recent, was examined to determine whether the criteria were applicable, whether they could be better phrased or quantified, and whether other criteria might be found. As Beccari suspected, the presence of flattened spines along the rachis of the Fea specimen (Criterion 2) merely indicates a juvenile leaf (cf. e.g Oulathong 200). All the Chinese material bears thick, deflexed spines or claws and in this respect there is no difference between material assigned to the differing forms. It appears that Pei et al. (1989) wished rather to place their emphasis on the fact of these claws being in pairs or threes and not solitary as in the typical form, but this seems to us to be a variable feature of no diagnostic value in the present example. The degree of primary bract laceration and scale channelling were scored by eye and measurements were made of rachilla length and spacing (the latter as an index of whether there were 'more' or 'fewer', since total numbers could not be determined from the fragmentary specimens). These data showed clearly that variation in Criteria 3 - 6 was not correlated between characters and no disjunctions could be found supporting the recognition of two taxa. All fruiting material had a dark intramarginal line of varying width and shade and a fine creamy marginal line (Criterion 7). This included those specimens cited by Pei et al. (1989) as representing C. karinensis and so supposedly 'without a dark [intra]marginal line'. In Fea s.n. the intramarginal line is broad at the scale corners but narrows or even disappears near the midline of the scale. Thus overall the re-assessment found no support for the separation of taxa, and this causes us to synonymise them here. (T. Evans & K. Sengdala & B. Thammavong & O.V. Viengkham & J. Dransfield, A Synopsis of the Rattans (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) of Laos and Neighbouring Parts of Indochina. 2002)A

Biology And Ecology

  • Evergreen forest at 800 - 950 m in Laos, 1400 - 1500 m in Thailand. (T. Evans & K. Sengdala & B. Thammavong & O.V. Viengkham & J. Dransfield, A Synopsis of the Rattans (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) of Laos and Neighbouring Parts of Indochina. 2002)A

Conservation

  • Unknown. Probably of little concern since it occupies a wide range and is strongly clustering. However, Renuka (1999) stated that North- east Indian populations have declined considerably in recent years. (T. Evans & K. Sengdala & B. Thammavong & O.V. Viengkham & J. Dransfield, A Synopsis of the Rattans (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) of Laos and Neighbouring Parts of Indochina. 2002)A

Common Name

  • wai lao, wai mon, wai namleuang, wai thoon (Lao Loum), blong poul (Khamu). (T. Evans & K. Sengdala & B. Thammavong & O.V. Viengkham & J. Dransfield, A Synopsis of the Rattans (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) of Laos and Neighbouring Parts of Indochina. 2002)A

Uses

  • Cane suitable for handicrafts and reported to be traded in Laos (although Beccari (1908) and Sarkar (1999) note that the cane is very brittle). Shoot edible. (T. Evans & K. Sengdala & B. Thammavong & O.V. Viengkham & J. Dransfield, A Synopsis of the Rattans (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) of Laos and Neighbouring Parts of Indochina. 2002)A

Materials Examined

  • Sikkim, Rhinn of Great Rangit, undated, (stam. & pist.), Thompson s.n. E12 (K); Assam? [illeg.], undated, (stam.), Jenkins s.n. E3 (K); Assam or East Bengal, undated, (fr.), Griffith 6386 (K). MYANMAR: Yado Valley, undated, (fr.), Fea s.n. (FI-B). CHINA (SOUTH YUNNAN): Mengla, Yaoquitan, foot of Nangong Mt, undated, (fr.), Chen, S. Y 795 (KUN). (SOUTH-EAST YUNNAN): Jiancheng, Qushuiqu, 7 March 1986, (fr.), Xu, Y 14327 (HITBC). THAILAND (NORTH) Doi Chiang Dao, 5 June 1921, (fr.), Kerr, A. 5615 (K, BK). LAOS (NORTH): Luang Namtha Province, Namtha Distr., near Ban Nam Kong, Nam Va, 2 May 1998, (stam.), Oulathong OL 200 (FRCL, K). VIETNAM (UNKNOWN): North Vietnam, 13Jan. 1961, (stam.), Unknown 1536 (LE). (T. Evans & K. Sengdala & B. Thammavong & O.V. Viengkham & J. Dransfield, A Synopsis of the Rattans (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) of Laos and Neighbouring Parts of Indochina. 2002)A

Bibliography

    A. T. Evans & K. Sengdala & B. Thammavong & O.V. Viengkham & J. Dransfield, A Synopsis of the Rattans (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) of Laos and Neighbouring Parts of Indochina. 2002
    B. World Checklist of Arecaceae