Calamus metzianus Schltdl., Linnaea 26: 727 (1855)

Primary tabs

no image available

Distribution

Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
India present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
INDIA (Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka). Endemic. (S.K. Basu, Rattans (canes) in India. A Monographic Revision. 1992)A

Discussion

  • The type material was collected by Rev. Metz from Kanara District of Kamataka. Recently this species was reported from Kerala (Renuka, Bhat and Nambiar, 1982). (S.K. Basu, Rattans (canes) in India. A Monographic Revision. 1992)A

Biology And Ecology

  • Infrequent in moist deciduous forests of the Western Ghats. (S.K. Basu, Rattans (canes) in India. A Monographic Revision. 1992)A

Common Name

  • Cheria-chural. Olianchural. (S.K. Basu, Rattans (canes) in India. A Monographic Revision. 1992)A

Uses

  • It is one of the small diameter canes of South India but unlike others its cane is very weak and breaks easily and is therefore unsuitable for basket making. It has some local uses. Bhat and Tulsidas( 1989) observed that the stem of this species has a low specific gravity and a low percentage of fibre in the cane. (S.K. Basu, Rattans (canes) in India. A Monographic Revision. 1992)A

Description

  • A slender climber; stem cluster forming, with leafsheath about 2 cm in diameter; leafsheath with flagellum, armed with irregularly spaced triangular, 1 -2 cm long spines and much shorter spinules. Leaves ecirrate; 1 m or more long; leaflets linear-lanceolate, tapering at base, equidistant on rachis; lower leaflets 25-27 cm long, 15 mm broad at middle; each gradually tapering into a slender point, prominently 3-nerved; midnerve strongly spinulose on both sides from middle upwards; lateral nerves smooth; margins slightly bristly; petiole armed with straight, black-tipped spines. Female inflorescence flagelliform; primary bract narrow, closely sheathing, obliquely truncate at apex, armed with numerous claws; axial part of inflorescence flat on one side and convex on the other, armed with clusters of black claws; partial inflorescence 60 - 80 cm long, attached to distinct cushion above the mouth of the respective secondary bracts; rachillae mostly 10 - 15 in number, 6 - 9 cm long, arching or recurved on outer side, attached just above the mouth of the respective basal bract; lower-most rachilla longest with 8 - 9 flowers on each side; involucrophorum non pedicelliform; female flowers about 3 mm long, almost immersed in its own bract, attached at the base of one above; involucre cup-like. Male inflorescence flagelliform; partial inflorescences simple; male rachillae alternate, simple arcuate. Fruits broadly ovoid to oblong, abruptly contracted into a 3 mm long beak, 1.7x 1.1 cm; fruiting perianth flattened; fruit scales in 17 longitudinal series, light yellow in colour, minute, distinctly channelled at middle with erosely toothed margins; seed ovoid, compressed, solitary, 9x7 mm, smooth. (S.K. Basu, Rattans (canes) in India. A Monographic Revision. 1992)A

Materials Examined

  • Tamil Nadu : Nilambar, 1919, Perrie s.n. Forest Botany Office, FRI, Dehra Dun (CAL Ace. no. 49362-49366). Kerala: Nilambur, 27.3.1984 Renuka 3061 (CAL). (S.K. Basu, Rattans (canes) in India. A Monographic Revision. 1992)A

Cultivation

  • Not cultivated. (S.K. Basu, Rattans (canes) in India. A Monographic Revision. 1992)A

Bibliography

    A. S.K. Basu, Rattans (canes) in India. A Monographic Revision. 1992
    B. World Checklist of Arecaceae