Iriartea deltoidea Ruiz & Pav., Syst. Veg. Fl. Peruv. Chil. : 298 (1798)

Primary tabs

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Distribution

Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
Boliviapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Brazil Northpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Colombiapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Costa Ricapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Ecuadorpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Nicaraguapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Panamápresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Venezuelapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Central America to Ecuador W of the Andes, and in the W part of the Amazon region from Venezuela to Bolivia. Perhaps the most common native tree species in Ecuador, occurring in all provinces that include moist lowland areas. (Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador)A

Discussion

  • The holotype of Iriartea deltoidea consists of five sheets with a seedling, section of leaf, and piece of rachilla with pistillate flowers. The iso type is similar. This species is interpreted from the type, description, and a more recent collection from the type locality (Henderson 537).

    The type of Deckeria corneto consists of four sheets, with a leaf section and rachillae with sta-minate and pistillate flowers. This species is interpreted from the type, description, and other collections from at or near the type locality (Henderson et al. 119, Triana 1733-2, Dugand &Ja-ramillo 2921, Moore & Dietz 9865). Karsten described the species as having 16-20 stamens. The type has 15 stamens, and Henderson et al. 119 has 13-14. Karsten's count is considered incorrect, and D. corneto is not maintained.

    The type of Iriartea ventricosa consists of a single sheet with a leaf section only. Dugand (1942) believed that the type locality could be in present-day Colombia. This species is interpreted from the type and the description. Martius distinguished his new species on its ventricose stem, pinna shape, and villose staminate calyx. The character of the stem swelling is of no significance. It is usual in Iriartea for lowland populations below ca. 300 m to have markedly swollen stems, and for upland populations to have more or less cylindrical stems. However, there are many exceptions in any population, and the character is physiological, and not of any taxo-nomic significance. The characters of the pinna shape and calyx trichomes are of little importance. All Iriartea specimens examined with young staminate flowers have villose sepals, but these trichomes soon fall from the sepals.

    The type of Iriartea phaeocarpa consists of a seedling only, which is illustrated in Martius (1847). This species is interpreted from the type, the description, from Martius (1847), and more recent collections from near the type locality (Nee & Solomon 30325). Martius recognized that this species was similar to I. ventricosa, but distinguished it by its few peduncular bracts, pinnae size, and fruit size. The number of peduncular bracts, three, is obviously based on a misinterpretation, probably most had fallen when the illustration was made. The illustration is, in any case, incomplete (Burret, 1930). Pinnae shape and fruit size are not considered significant.

    The type of Iriartea gigantea consists of leaf sections and rachillae with staminate and pistillate flowers. This species is interpreted from the type, the description, and from recent collections from at or near the type locality (Moore 6574, Moore & Parthasarathy 9413, Tomlinson 65B, Henderson 42). Burret distinguished his new species by its thicker rachillae with seven series of triads, and by its longer fruit. These differences are slight and are not considered significant.

    The type of Iriartea weberbaueri consists of approximately 30 fruits. This species is interpreted from the type and the description. Burret distinguished the species by its larger fruits and cylindrical stern. The type fruits are 2-2.5 x 2.2-2.5 cm, and easily fall within the range observed in other specimens. As discussed above, the character of the stem swelling is of no taxonomic significance.

    The type of Iriartea megalocarpa is no longer extant at B, and no isotypes are known. A recent collection from the type locality, the neotype, is typical Iriartea deltoidea. (Henderson, A. 1990. Introduction and the Iriarteinae. Flora Neotropica Monograph 53.)C

Uses

  • The outer part of the stems are used throughout its range for building purposes, e.g., floors, posts, poles; also for blowguns, bows, harpoons and arrow points; and also for firewood. The leaves are used for thatching and basketry. The heart and seeds are occasionally eaten. The inside layer of the leaf sheath is used to give women strength in labor (Shemluck & Ness 163, Ecuador). Hollowed-out stems are used as coffins by Embera Indians in Colombia (R. Bernal, pers. comm.). Steven King (pers. comm.) reports that in northern Peru Angotere-Secoya and Quechua people use the stems of I. deltoidea as canoes. Large specimens are selected and carefully felled. The soft central ground tissue is removed from the center of the stem, and base and apex fashioned into bow and stern. The canoes are widely used for shortening trips, especially long overland trips where short-cuts can be made by river. Canoes last about two or three months. Such is the demand for these temporary canoes that many of the larger specimens of Iriartea have been felled in this area. Rodrigo Bernal (pers. comm.) reports that in Colombia the Embera Indians of the Choco tie the stems together and use them as rafts. Since these are so heavy they are only used for downstream travel. (Henderson, A. 1990. Introduction and the Iriarteinae. Flora Neotropica Monograph 53.)C

Description

  • Canopy palm. Stem to 20 m tall and 20-40 cm in diameter, often swollen in the middle. Base supported by a 1-2 m tall cone of black stilt roots, these 3-5 cm in diameter. Leaves 4-6, 3-5 m long, bushy; pinnae numerous, longitudinally split, spreading in different planes, green on both sides. Inflorescence buds 1-3 m long, downwards curved, resembling a bulls horn. Inflorescence cream coloured in flower, the numerous pendulous branches to 1.5 m long, borne on a short curved axis. Fruits dull bluish black, globose, ca. 3 cm in diameter. (Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador)A
  • Stem more or less ventricose, to 25 m tall, 10-30 cm in diam. at base, 12-70 cm in diam. at swelling, 11-23 cm in diam. at apex, gray, smooth, with nodes obscure and internodes to 30 cm long; stilt roots to 100, terete, nearly vertical, closely spaced and forming a dense cone, branched at or below ground level, to 2 m x 3.5 cm, black, with sharp spines. Leaves 4-7, stiffly spreading; sheath forming a crownshaft, 60-150 cm long, glaucous, green, outer surface with brown or white scales; petiole terete, 2-13 x 3 cm (to 40 cm long when including narrow, apical, petiolar part of sheath), green, densely brown-tomentose; rachis ridged adaxially, rounded abaxially, 2-4.3 m long, densely whitish-tomentose abaxially, densely whitish-brown-tomentose adaxially; pinnae 15-27 per side of rachis, alternate, stiff, coriaceous, deltate with praemorse distal margins, lustrous green glabrous above, green glabrous below except for dense brown villi at base and on veins or occasionally villous overall, occasionally below with lines ca. 3 mm wide of dense white or brown tomentum running parallel to veins, the middle pinnae split to the base into numerous segments, the proximal one of a pinna largest and pendulous and all the distal ones smaller and pointing up and away from the axis and giving the leaf a two-ranked appearance (juvenile plants with entire pinnae); proximal pinna entire, 6-28 cm long, 0.5-8 cm wide at mid-point, erect; middle pinnae split into as many as 18 segments, the proximal one 50-98(-122) cm long and 3-8(-47) cm wide at mid-point and the distal one 19-34 cm long and 1-2.5 cm wide at mid-point; apical pinna entire, flabellate, 35-38 cm long, 17 cm wide at mid-point. Inflorescence pendulous at anthesis, to 2 m long, buds developing below crownshaft and erect at first, soon becoming de-curved and eventually horn-shaped; peduncle terete, curved, 20-44 cm long, half-encircling stem and then abruptly narrowing to 2-6 cm in diam., densely brown-velvety-tomentose, at anthesis with up to 16 bract scars; prophyll inserted at base of peduncle, triangular, bicarinate, 8 cm long, 7 cm wide at base, early caducous; peduncular bracts to 15, caducous as bud elongates, terete, with acute apex, splitting abaxially, the first ca. six similar to and only slightly longer than the prophyll, the remaining ca. nine longer, terete, horn-shaped eventually up to 120 cm long, sometimes an incomplete bract of variable size present; prophyll and peduncular bracts tomen-tose on the outside like the peduncle; rachis 14-46 cm long, of same diam. as peduncle at base and tapering into distal rachillae; rachillae 23-37, all simple or more often the proximal few bifurcate, at base with 3-6 cm swollen, flattened, sterile section, ± equal in length, 80-140 cm long, 5-8 mm diam. at mid-point, subtended by a vestigial bract, glabrous; triads in as many as seven spirally arranged series, 2-6 mm apart, vestigially bracteate;flowers proximally in triads (rarely tetrads with two pistillate), distally sta-minate in pairs or solitary, or often all in an inflorescence staminate, yellowish at anthesis; staminate flowers up to 7 mm long; sepals depressed-ovate, imbricate, very briefly connate below, 2.5-3 x 2-4 mm, fleshy, gibbous, covered with long, stiff, caducous hairs; petals ovate-oblong, valvate, 7x3 mm; stamens (10-)12-15(-17); filaments triangular, 0.5 mm long; anthers linear, latrorse, sub-basifixed, 4-5 mm long; pistillode minute or absent; pollen with intectate, clavate exine; pistillate flowers 4 mm long; sepals fleshy, imbricate, 4-5 x 5 mm, ciliate; petals imbricate below, valvate above, fleshy, 4-5 x 5 mm; staminodes 10-13, adnate to base of petals, 1.5-2 mm long, apiculate; ovary 3-5 mm long, triangular in cross-section, 3-locular; stigmas sessile, triangular, 1 mm long, 1 mm diam. at base, erect at anthesis; fruit globose, 2-2.7 x 2.4-2.8 cm including persistent expanded perianth; stigmatic residue sub-apical to apical; epicarp glabrous, greenish-yellow at maturity and splitting irregularly from apex; mesocarp whitish, granular, fibrous; endocarp papery; seed globose, 1.5 cm diam., basally attached; raphe branches anastomosing; hilum rounded; embryo sub-apical to lateral; eophyll entire. (Henderson, A. 1990. Introduction and the Iriarteinae. Flora Neotropica Monograph 53.)C

Materials Examined

  • COSTA RICA. ALAJUELA: Cataratasde San Ramon, 28 Feb 1931 (ft), Brenes 13566 (F, MO, NY); vie. of Guatuso de San Rafael, on Rio Frio, 10°43'N, 84°48'W, 80-100 m, 4 Aug 1949 (fr), Holm & Iltis 912 (BH, MO). HEREDIA: Finca La Selva on Rio Puerto Viejo just E of its junction with Rio Sarapiqui, Starkey's Woods, 8 Dec 1984 (fl, fr), Henderson 42 (NY); 28 Jan 1967, Moore & Parthasarathy 9413 (BH); 17 Aug 1965, Tomlinson 17viii65B (BH); Rio Cuarto, 14 Mar 1945, Langlois 11 (BH); between Corazon de Jesus and La Virgen, Rio Sarapiqui, 340 m, 24 Mar 1953, Moore 6574 (BH). LIMON: Los Angeles de Siquirres, 3 km W and 1.9 km S of Guayacan, hwy. to Limon, 1000 m, 6 May 1983 (fl, fr), Gomez et al. 20529 (MO, NY); Finca Montecristo, on Rio Re-ventazon below Cairo, 25 m, 18-19 Feb 1926, Standley & Valeria 48950 (US). PUNTARENAS: 5 km W of Rincon de Osa, Osa Peninsula, 8°42'N, 83-31'W, 50-200 m, 24-30 Mar 1973 (fl), Burger & J. Gentry 8909 (MO, PMA, US); Esquinas Ridge, Osa Peninsula, 150-250 m, Jan 1983 (fl, fr), Gomez 19688 (MO, NY); 7 km from Chacarita on rd. to Rincon de Osa, 150 m, 21 Dec 1984 (fl), Henderson 65 (NY); above airport, Rincon de Osa, 20-300 m, 11 Feb 1974 (fl, fr), Liesner 2067 (MO, NY); above Palmar Norte, 600 m, 6 Mar 1953, Moore 6524 (BH); before El Cedral on trail from Palmar Norte to Maiz, 740 m, 12 Mar 1955, Moore 6555 (BH). PANAMA. COCLE: Rd. from La Pintado to Coclesito, 8°45'N, 80°30'W, 600 m, 7 Feb 1983 (fl), Hamilton & Davidse 2824 (NY). COLON: Santa Rita Ridge, E of Transisthmian Hwy., 300-500 m, 16 Dec 1972 (fr), Gentry 6559 (MO); COMARCA DE SAN BLAS: El Llano-Carti rd., nr. Nusagandi, 13 Jan 1985 (fl), Henderson 87 (NY). PANAMA: 4-6 km N of El Llano on El Llano-Carti rd., 200 m, 11 Nov 1974, Moore et al. 10185 (BH); Gorgas Memorial Labs. Yellow Fever Research Camp, ca. 25 km NE of Cerro Azul on Rio Piedras, 550 m, 24 Nov 1974 (fl), Mori & Kallunki 3455 (BH, MO, PMA).?COLOMBIA. AMAZONAS: Between Rio Loreto Yacu and Rio Amaca Yacu, 20 Dec 1945 (fr), Duque-Jaramillo 2400 (COL); Loreto Yacu, ca. 100 m, Mar 1946 (fr), Schultes 7153 (BH, GH); Rio Apaporis, Soratama, nr. mouth of Rio Cananari, 7 Dec 1951 (fl), Schultes & Cabrera 14873 (GH, NY). ANTIOQUIA: Mun. de Frontino, Murri, La Blanquita, 815 m, 22 Mar 1982 (fl, fr), Bernal & Galeano 300 (COL, NY); 18 Feb 1985, Henderson & Bernal 142 (COL, JAUM, NY). CAQUETA: Between Florencia and Venecia, 400 m, 31 Mar 1940 (fl), Cuatrecasas 8946 (COL); Cordillera Oriental, Sucre, 1000-1300 m, 4 Apr 1940 (fl), Cuatrecasas 9099 (COL); rd. between Altamira and Florencia, nr. Florencia, 1000 m, 10 Feb 1985 (fr), Henderson & Bernal 133 (COL, JAUM, NY); Morelia, 150-300 m, 13 Oct 1941 (fl), Sneidern 1125 (COL); Hetucha, Rio Orte guaza, 30 Jul 1926 (fl), Woronow & Juzepczuk 6319 (LE). CHOCO: Hydro camp no. 14, Rio Salaqui, 6 days upstream from Rio Sucio, 200 m, 23 May 1967, Duke 11342(7) (BH); region of Rio Baudo, 2 Feb-29 Mar 1967, Fuchs et al. 22055 (COL); trail from Unguia to Cerro Mali, lowest slopes of Serrania del Darien, 300-500 m, 20 Jan 1975 (fr), Gentry & Mori 13738 (BH, COL, MO); vie. of Rio Tigre base camp, base of Serrania del Darien, W of Unguia, 300 m, 17 Jul 1975 (fr), Gentry & Aguirre 15223 (BH, COL, MO). META: Between Villavicencio and Rio Ocoa, rd. of Guayuriba, Montenegro, 450 m, 24 Feb 1941, Dugand& Jaramillo 2921 (COL); 10 km S of Acacias, nr. Rio Negro, 3 Feb 1985 (fl, fr), Henderson et al. 119 (COL, JAUM, NY); nr. Rio Guamal just beyond Guamal on rd. from Villavicencio to San Martin, 6 Sep 1970 (fl, fr), Moore & Dietz 9865 (BH, COL); Llanos of San Martin and Villavicencio, 250 m, Jan 1836 (fl), Triana 1733-2 (COL). PUTUMAYO: Rio Putumayo, at Puerto Ospina, 230 m, 14 Nov 1940 (fl, fr), Cuatrecasas 10566 (COL); Rio Putumayo, La Conception, 225 m, 27 Nov 1940 (fl), Cuatrecasas 10815 (COL); Rio San Miguel, Quebrada de la Hormiga, 290 m, 16 Dec 1940 (fl), Cuatrecasas 11127 (COL); between Quebrada de la Hormiga and San Antonio del Guamues, 330 m, 18 Dec 1940 (fl), Cuatrecasas 11153 (COL); Mocoa, Quebrada of Rio Afan, 570-680 m, 27 Dec 1940 (fl, fr), Cuatrecasas 11328 (COL); Pepino nr. Mocoa, 4000 ft, 21 Nov 1946 (fr), Foster & Foster 2215 (A, BH, COL); Rio Putumayo opposite mouth of Rio Gueppi, on border with Ecuador and Peru, 200 m, 19 May 1978 (fr), Gentry & Diaz 22123 (F); Rio San Miguel or Sucumbios, Santa Rosa, 380 m, 7-8 Apr 1942, Schultes 3549 (BH, GH). VALLE: Pacific coast, between El Aguacate and Quebrada de la Yuca, 10-40 m, 8 Feb 1944, Cuatrecasas 16080 (COL); Rio Calima, La Trojita, 5-50 m, 19 Feb-10 Mar 1944 (fl, fr), Cuatrecasas 16369 (COL); 19 Feb-10 Mar 1944, Cuatrecasas 16369A (COL); ibid., 19 Feb-10 Mar 1944, Cuatrecasas 16475 (COL); Pacific coast, Rio Cajambre, 5-80 m, 5-15 May 1944 (fl), Cuatrecasas 17493 (COL, US); Cordillera Occidental, Rio Anchicaya, nr. La Cascada, 340 m, 29 Mar 1947 (fl), Cuatrecasas 24012 (COL, F, US); La Trojita, 1 hour downstream from Baja Calima, 0-50 m, 9 Apr 1976 (fl), Moore et al. 10227 (BH). VAUPES: Yurupari, Rio Vaupes, 25 Oct 1939 (fr), Cuatrecasas 7301A (COL, US); Rio Guaviare, 240 m, 9 Nov 1939 (fl, fr), Cuatrecasas 7620 (US). VENEZUELA. AMAZONAS: Neblina base camp, Rio Mawarinuma, 0°50'N, 66°10'W, 140 m, 6 Feb 1984 (fr), Henderson 17 (NY, VEN). BOLIVAR: Rio Parami-chi between mouth of Rio Paramichi and Chalimano, 4°2-12'N, 63°1-5'W, 525-625 m, 8-9 Jan 1962 (fl, fr), Steyermark 90777 (BH, MO, VEN).?ECUADOR. ESMERALDAS: Playa de Oro, 60 m, 30 Apr 1943, Little 6397B (BH, NY). EL ORO: 14 km W of Pinas on new rd. to Santa Rosa, 600 m, 8 Oct 1979, Dodson et al. 9004 (BH, NY). Los Rios: Path of ridge line at El Centinela at crest of Montanas de Ila on rd. from Patricio Pilar to 24 de Mayo at km 12, 600 m, 13 Feb 1982 (fl), Dodson & Gentry 12366 (MO). MORONA-SANTIAGO: E side of Rio Zamora ca. 3 km downstream from inlet of Rio Chuchumbleza, 3°32'S, 78°30'W, 800m, 21 Sep 1983 (fi), Balslev & Brandbyge 4414 (NY); 25 km SW of Taisha, 2°32'S, 77°43'W, 450 m, Sep 1976 (fl), Onega 103 (US). NAPO: Estacion Experimental de INIAP, San Carlos, 6 km SE of Los Sachos, 250 m, 7 Apr 1985 (fr), Baker & Trushell 5922 (NY); Palma Oriente Plantation, ca. 20 km N of Coca, 0°17'S, 77°3'W, 300 m, 16 Jun 1983 (fl, fr), Balslev & Brako 4314 (NY); nr. confluence of Rio Cuyabeno and Rio Tarapuy in Reserva Faunistica Cuyabeno, 0°5'S, 76°10'W, 230 m, 22 Jul 1983 (fl), Balslev & Cox 4322 (NY); Comuna San Jose de Payamino at Rio Payami-no, 4-5 hours upstream from Coca, 0°30'S, 77°18'W, 1-7 Dec 1983 (fl), Balslev & Irvine 4631 (NY); Rio Eno, S side at limit of Secoya Reserve, Vi hour in canoe from confluence with Rio Cuyabeno, 0°18'S, 76°20'W, 300 m, 20 Feb 1984, Balslev 4865 (NY); confluence of Rio Quiwado and Rio Tiwaeno, 11 Apr 1981 (fr), Davis & Yost 929 (NY); Dureno on Rio Aguarico, n.d., Pink-ley s.n. (BH); Anangu, 0°31-32'S, 76°23'W, 260-350 m, 30 May-21 Jun 1982, SEF8517 (NY); Rio Aguarico, Shushufindi, 244 m, 21 Dec 1974 (fl, fr), Vickers 58 (F); Araki on Rio Guataracu, 10 hours W of Coca, 0°40'S, 77°20'W, 25 Oct 1960 (fl), Whitmore 834 (K). PASTAZA: 4 km S of Shell towards Madre Tierra, just W of Puyo, 1°30'S, 78°3'W, 1050 m, 16 Mar 1983 (fr), Balslev & Brako 4278 (NY); Rio Chico, 10 km S of Puyo, 1-30'S, 77°55'W, ca. 1000 m, Aug 1979, Shem-luck & Ness 163 (BH). PICHINCHA: N bank of Rio Toache E of Santo Domingo de los Colorados, 0°15'S, 79°7'W, 600 m, 19-21 Mar 1986 (fl, fr), Balslev et al. 62001 (AAU, NY); Rio Toache, nr. Colonia La Mag-dalena, km 103 on Quito rd. from Santo Domingo de los Colorados, 600 m, 22 Feb 1967, Moore & Parthasarathy 9491 (BH).?PERU. AMAZONAS: Above Quebrada Tuhusik, 5 min down river from Chavez Valdivia, Rio Cenepa, ca. 250 m, 16 Dec 1972 (fr), Berlin 546 (BH, MO); Mitallar, 2 km from La Poza, Rio Santiago, 180 m, 17 Aug 1979 (fr), Pena 107 (MO). Cuzco: Prov. Paucartambo, nr. Pilcopata on rd. Pilcopata to Patria, 720 m, 6 Feb 1975 (fr), Plowman & Davis 5012 (BH, GH). HUANUCO: Prov. Huanuco, Tingo Maria, 16 Jul 1940 (fl), Asplund 12278 (S); nr. confluence of Rio Cayumba with Rio Huallaga, 875 m, 14 Oct 1936 (fr, fl), Mexia 8291 (BH, F, GH, K, MO, NY, S, UC, US); above Prato sawmill, vie. of Tingo Maria, 900-980 m, 25 Apr 1960, Moore et al. 8338 (BH); Prov. Tingo Maria, Rio Pendencia, 640-700 m, 1 May 1960, Moore et al. 8389 (BH); Prov. Pachitea, Distr. Puerto Inca, carretera marginal ca. 14 km from a point across the Rio Pachitea from Puerto Inca, 9°31'S, 74°58'W, 350 m, 13 Apr 1982 (fr), Smith 1291 (MO). JUNIN: Prov. Tarma, Rio Ulcumayo just above junction with Rio Cascas at settlement Poma-carca, ca. 12 km NW of San Ramon, 1200 m, 31 Nov 1962 (fr), Iltis & Iltis 254 (WIS); Prov. Satipo, Alto Kimiriki, 8 km from Pichinaki, 11°1'S, 74°54'W, 850 m, 29 Jun 1982 (fl, fr), Smith & Bokor 2131 (NY). LORETO: Prov. Alto Amazonas, Andoas, Rio Pastaza nr. Ecuador border, 2°48'S, 76°28'W, 210 m, 16 Aug 1980 (fr), Gentry et al 29825 (MO, NY). MADRE DE Dios: Cashu Cocha Camp, Rio Manu, Parque National de Manu, 380 m, 16 Oct 1979 (fr), Gentry et al. 26778 (BH, MO); 17 Oct 1979 (Gentry et al. 26875 (BH, MO); Prov. Tahuamanu, NW of Iberia, ca. 180 m, 7 Jun 1960, Moore et al. 8558 (BH); Prov. and Dist. Tambopata, Tambopata Reserve, junction of Rio Tambopata and Rio La Torre, 250 m, 26 Mar 1981 (fr), Young 189 (NY). PASCO: Rio Palacuzu, between km 51 and 60 of new rd. in construction NW of Villa Rica toward Puerto Bermudez, 10°30'S, 75°5'W, 700 m, 4 Mar 1982 (fr), Gentry & Smith 35999 (BH, MO, NY); Prov. Oxapampa, 1 km beyond Pozuzo, 823 m, 15 Dec 1985 (fr), Henderson 537 (NY, USM); Prov. Oxapampa, Palcazu valley, Rio San Jose in the Rio Chuchurras drainage, 10°9'S, 75°20'W, 400-500 m, 14 May 1983, Smith 4020 (NY). SAN MARTIN: Prov. and Dist. Lamas, along Rio Curiyacu, an affluent of Rio Cumbasa, ca. 8 km above San Antonio, ca. 400 m, 5 Nov 1937, Belshaw 3586 (GH, UC, US); upper Huallaga valley, 20 km from Uchiza, 350 m, 12 Dec 1985 (fl, fr), Kahn 1842 (NY); Prov. San Martin, nr. km 20 on Tarapoto-Yurimaguas rd. on Cerro de Escalero, 980 m, 26 May 1960, Moore et al. 8531 (BH). UCAYALI: Prov. Coronel Portillo, Bosque National de von Humboldt, km 86 Pucallapa-Tingo Maria rd., 8°40'S, 75°0'W, 270 m, 7 Aug 1980 (fl), Gentry & Salazar 29430 (BH, MO, NY); Prov. Coronel Portillo, carretera marginal, 22 km S of km 86 on Pucallapa-Tingo Maria rd., 8°41'S, 75°0'W, 250 m, 11 Feb 1981 (fr), Gentry et al. 31192 (MO); Prov. Coronel Portillo, beyond vivero of Forestry Service toward Rio Manantay, km 4, Pucallapa, ca. 220 m, 5 May 1960, Moore et al. 8399 (BH).?BRAZIL. ACRE: Nr. mouth of Rio Macauhan (tributary of Rio Yaco), 9°20'S, 69°W, 2 Sep 1933 (fl), Krukoff 5739 (A, F, LE, MO, NY, UC, US). AMAZONAS: BR 319 Porto Velho-Manaus rd., 85 km N of Humaita at Bonfuturo, 7°10'S, 63°0'W, 8 Apr 1985 (fr), Henderson et al. 199 (INPA, NY); Mun. de Humaita, BR 230 Transamazonica, km 140, 15 Apr 1985 (fl), Henderson et al. 243 (INPA, NY); Rio Negro, n.d., Spruce 153-26 (K); Barreiras do Jutahi, Rio Solimoes, 18 Jan 1875 (fr), Trail 1057 (GH, K). MATO GROSSO: Angustura, SW of Machedo, Dec 1931 (fr), Krukoff 1612 (BH, F, MO).?BOLIVIA. LA PAZ: Between Tipuani and Guanay, Dec 1892 (fl, fr), Bang 1734 (A, E, F, GH, MO, NY, US); San Carlos, Mapiri, 750 m, 11 Sep 1907, Buchtien 1247 (US); Prov. Nor Yungas, 10 km by rd. N and above Caranavi, ca. 15°47'S, 67°32'W, 1400 m, 1 Nov 1984 (fl), Nee & Solomon 30323 (NY); Tumupasa, 10 Jan 1902 (fl), Williams 402 (NY, US). PANDO: Prov. Manuripi, Rio Madre de Dios, 1 km W of Humaita, 12°1'S, 68°16'W, 150 m, 29 Aug 1985 (fl), Nee 31653 (NY). (Henderson, A. 1990. Introduction and the Iriarteinae. Flora Neotropica Monograph 53.)C

Use Record