Prestoea carderi (W.Bull) Hook.f., Bot. Mag. 116: t. 7108 (1890)

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Distribution

Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
Colombiapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)C
Ecuadorpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)C
Venezuelapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)C
Cordillera Central and Oriental in Colombia (Antioquia, Caquetá, Putumayo, Tolima), western Cordillera de la Costa (Yaracuy) in Venezuela, and eastern Andean slopes in Ecuador (Morona-Santiago, Pastaza, Santiago-Zamora) and Peru (Amazonas, Huánuco); steep slopes in cloud forest at 1000-1950 m. (Gloria Galeano & A. Henderson, Flora Neotropica Monograph 72)B

Patchy in mountain areas in Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru, at 1000-2000 m elevation. In Ecuador it is known from a few localities on the E Andean slopes. (Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador)A

Discussion

  • This species, perhaps more than any other, illustrates local variation in Prestoea and associated taxonomic problems. Local forms are usually well-separated geographically, but it is not clear if this apparent disjunction is real or an artefact of incomplete sampling and/or deforestation in intervening areas. In Venezuela (Yaracuy) there are populations with robust, racemose, markedly tomentose inflorescences with prominent rachilla bracteoles. In the Colombian Andes there are populations with simple leaves and others with pinnate leaves, but both types have a more delicate inflorescence than the form from Yaracuy. Similar pinnate-leaved plants occur in Ecuador, but here there is some variation in inflorescences. Balslev & Henderson 60648 has racemose inflorescences and almost corymobse inflorescences on the same plant. In Peru (Amawnas) a few specimens from the Serranía de Bagua have very small, simple leaves and small inflorescences with rather few rachillae. Chamaedorea pinnatifrons from the same locality is also dwarf in size. Finally, in the southern part of the range of the species, in Peru, are populations with the robust, markedly tomentose inflorescences, similar to the ones that occur in Yaracuy. We have chosen to recognize all these local variants as belonging to the same species, even though several of them have already been described as distinct species; many more collections are needed to resolve infraspecific variation. (Gloria Galeano & A. Henderson, Flora Neotropica Monograph 72)B

Common Name

Description

  • Understorey palm. Stems solitary or clustered, very short, ca. 5 cm in diameter. Leaf sheaths open, green; petiole 80-120 cm long; blade 100-200 cm long; pinnae 15-30 on each side, the central ones 35-70 cm long and 3-5 cm wide, abruptly narrowed at the tip into long filamentous point. Inflorescence with peduncle 50-140 cm long; rachis 20-70 cm long, with 20-60 short branches, 10-25 cm long. Fruits black, globose, 7-10 mm in diameter. Seedling leaves bifid. (Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador)A
  • Stems cespitose with 1 or 2 well-developed stems, or occasionally appearing solitary and then with basal shoots, 0.5-4 m tall, 3-4(-10) cm diam., brown, occasionally procumbent.
    Leaves 3-6( -10), spreading. regularly pinnate or occasionally simple; sheath open and not forming a crownshaft, somewhat persistent, 30-60 cm long including a ligule to 5 cm long, reddish, fibrous distally at margins; petiole (0.3-)0.9-2.5 m long, ± terete, densely covered with appressed, peltate-lacerate scales, glabrescent, or glabrous; rachis 1-2.4 m (22-48 cm in simple leaves) long, with scales like those of petiole; pinnae (on pinnate leaves) 13-36(-54) on each side, regularly arranged and horizontally spreading in the same plane, subopposite or alternate, linear-lanceolate, aristate, with prominent midvein and lateral veins, midvein lacking scales abaxially, with punctations abaxially, basal pinna 32-60 x (0.2-)1-1.5 cm; middle pinnae 35-70(-90) x 2-4.5(-6) cm; apical pinna 17-35 x 1-4 cm; simple leaves obovate, 38-87 cm long, 20-28 cm wide, bifid apically, with 16-20 main veins per side.
    Inflorescences racemose, interfoliar, erect in bud and at anthesis, arching in fruit; peduncle (0.4)-0.8-1 .4 m long, 4-10(-20) mm diam., terete; prophyll 18- 55 cm long, 1.5-5 cm wide; peduncular bract (0.6-)1-2.2 m long including a 5-6 cm long umbo, persistent; rachis 18-66 cm long, densely to moderately covered with reddish brown, branched hairs; rachilae (7-)21-59 (-l01), 8.5-27 cm long proximally, 4-10 cm long distally, ca. 1 mm diam. at anthesis, 1.5-1.7 mm diam. In fruit, slightly zig-zag, angular and almost rectangular in cross section, tending to be distichously arranged, especially distally, densely to moderately covered with clusters of reddish brown, branched hairs (occasionally glabrous); flowers in triads on proximal ca. ½, rachillae, paired or solitary staminate distally, the triads tending to distichously arranged on the rachillae; triad bracteole low, rounded to prominent, deltate, to 1 mm long; first flower bracteole obscure, second and third bracteoles ± equal, rounded, 0.5 mm long; staminate flowers 3.5-5.5 mm long; sepals triangular, 1-1.5 mm long, keeled; petals ovate, 2.5- 5 mm long; stamens arranged on a short receptacle; filaments 1.5 mm long, linear, flattened; anthers 1-2 mm long; pistillode 0.5- 1 mm long, trifid at apex; pistillate flowers 2-3.5 mm long; sepals widely ovate, 1.5-2 mm long, fleshy; petals triangular, 1-3.5 mm long; staminodes digitate.
    Fruits globose, 0.7-1 cm diam., the stigmatic remains lateral; epicarp purpleblack, minutely tuberculate; seeds globose; endosperm ruminate; eophyll bifid. (Gloria Galeano & A. Henderson, Flora Neotropica Monograph 72)B

Materials Examined

  • COLOMBIA. ANTIOQUIA: Mpio. San Luís, Piedra de Castrillón, 3-4 hr. on foot S of town, 06°01'N, 75°01'W, 1500-1700 m, 8 May 1989, Daly & Betancur 5900 (HUA, NY); Cocorná, 30 Jul 1937, Daniel 1816 (US); Mpio. Amalfi, rd. to Guayabalito, 1940 m, 27 Feb 1990, Galeano & Henderson 1958 (COL, NY).
    CAQUETA: Rd. between Altamira and Florencia, 1000 m, 10 Feb 1985, Henderson & R. Bernal 134 (NY); Sucre, 4 Apr 1940, Cuatrecasas 9073 (COL).
    PUTUMAYO: Rd. from Mocoa to Pasto, between EI Pepino and EI Mirador, 1400 m, 24 Feb 1988, R. Bernal & Galeano 1426 (AAU, COL, HUA, NY).
    TOLIMA: Libano, 1300- 1500 m, 26-29 Dec 1917, Pennell 3414 (NY).
    VENEZUELA. YARACUY: Cerro La Chapa, N of Nirgua, ca. 1200-1400 m, 21 Oct 1982, Davidse et al. 20857 (MO); 11 Mar 1967, Steyermark & Bunting 97632 (US, VEN); 12-13 Oct 1971, Sleyermark & Bunting 105244 (MO, NY, VEN); 9-10 Nov 1967, Steyermark et al. 100272 (BH, VEN); 9- 10 Nov 1967, Steyermark et al. 100306 (VEN); 9 Nov 1967, Wessels Boer 2030 (NY); Cumbre Gamelatal, 4.3- 11 km N of Salom on rd. from Salom to Candelaria, 10°15'N, 68°29'W, 1000-1200 m, 26 Mar 1985, Croat 60813 (NY); 19 Jan 1982, Mori et al. 14616 (NY, VEN); 4 Mar 1982, Liesner & Steyermark 12360 (NY, VEN).
    ECUADOR. MORONA-SANTIAGO: Rd. from Gualaceo to General L. Plaza Gutíerrez, 3 km W of jct. between Limón and Indanza, 03°S, 78°30'W, 1850 m, 11 Jul 1985, Balslev & Henderson 60648 (AAU, QCA); rd. Gualaceo- Limón, 2 km before Plan de Milagro, 03°01'S, 78°30'W, 1850 m, 26 Nov 1989, Borchsenius & Pedersen 91429 (AAU, QCA).
    SANTIAGO-ZAMORA: Quebrada Achupallas, 2500-2800 m, 9 Oct 1943, Steyermark 54536 (F).
    PERU. AMAZONAS: Ca. 12-18 km E of La Peca in Serranía de Bagua, 1800-1950 m, 20 Jun 1978, Barbour 2408 (MO, NY); 4 Jul 1978, Barbour 2632 (MO); 14 lun 1978, Gentry et al. 22872 (BH, MO, NY).
    HUÁNUCO: Prov. Tingo María, ca. km 194 on rd. from Tingo María to Divisoria, 1500-1650 m, 27 Apr 1960, Moore et al.8349 (BH, USM); Prov. Leoncio Prado, Dist. Hermilio Valdizán, nr. La Divisoria, 1500-1600 m, 21 Jun 1976, Schunke 9327 (BH, MO, NY). (Gloria Galeano & A. Henderson, Flora Neotropica Monograph 72)B