Orania sylvicola (Griff.) H.E.Moore, Principes 6: 44 (1962)

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Distribution

Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
Malayapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Sumaterapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Thailandpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Widespread in almost every part of Western Malesia and slightly beyond the boundary with Indochina floral region (restricted only in southern part of Thailand). Area of distribution covers Malay Peninsula, Singapore, Sumatra, West Java, Anambas Islands, Karimata Islands Group, West Kalimantan and Sarawak. The species so far has never been recorded in the Philippines, Sulawesi and Sabah (A.P. Keim & J. Dransfield, A monograph of the genus Orania (Arecaceae: Oranieae) in Kew Bulletin 67. 2012)A

Habitat

  • Lowland humid evergreen tropical rainforest from 0 to about 600 m above sea level. In some parts of Sumatra and Borneo sometimes found in heath forest ("kerangas"). (A.P. Keim & J. Dransfield, A monograph of the genus Orania (Arecaceae: Oranieae) in Kew Bulletin 67. 2012)A

Discussion

  • Orania sylvicola is the second-most widespread species after O. palindan. This species is also known to inhabit a wide range of habitats, from humid lowland rainforests with rich soil to heath forests with very poor sandy soil. O. sylvicola is commonly found from coastal areas up to about 600 m above sea level. In Southern Thailand - around Tamben Kao Panom, Kerr 18802 - it has been reported from 1100 m. In Malay Peninsula O. sylvicola is found throughout the peninsula and on the adjacent island, Tioman. In Singapore O. sylvicola used to be found on mainland Singapore and a small offshore island (Ubin). However, this is based on reports and specimens collected by Ridley in 1891 (see Ridley 1900) at a time when a large part of Singapore was still covered with lowland tropical rainforest. The presence of O. sylvicola in Singapore and the surrounding islands has never been reported again. In Sumatra O. sylvicola is found throughout the island but mostly in the North and Central part of the island (i.e. the Provinces of North Sumatra and Jambi). Dransfield (1974) reported O. sylvicola in an area between Jambi and Bangko growing in lowland grassland ("alang-alang"). In South Sumatra it has been reported growing in great numbers in heath forest ("kerangas") developed on very poor sandy soil just about 200 km from the coast (see Dransfield 1972). Apart from these two reports O. sylvicola normally grows in lowland forest on rich soil. So far no species of Orania has been reported from the northernmost part of the island (Aceh). As in Sumatra, in Borneo O. sylvicola is also found scattered throughout the island - mostly in the western part, but it is absent from Sabah.
    In Borneo O. sylvicola is also found in both lowland forest on well-drained soil (sometimes also in sandstone based soil as in West Kalimantan) and occasionally in heath forests ("kerangas") with less rich soil as in some parts of Sarawak (see Dransfield 1984). In Java O. sylvicola is restricted to the western part only. Nowadays this species can be seen only in the Dungus Iwul Nature Reserve, Jasinga, West Java. Another locality in West Java where O. sylvicola was once found is Pancoran Mas Nature Reserve-Depok (Backer & Bakhuizen van den Brink 1968). It was still there until at least the early 1970s (Dransfield 1998 pers. comm.). Unfortunately, when AK visited the place, O. sylvicola was no longer present. O. sylvicola has never been reported further east from West Java. Although there is another species that possesses the unequal staminodes, O. longistaminodia, several characters distinguish O. sylvicola from O. longistaminodia (A.P. Keim & J. Dransfield, A monograph of the genus Orania (Arecaceae: Oranieae) in Kew Bulletin 67. 2012)A

Conservation

  • Least concern (LC). On a global scale this species is widespread and often abundant in, for example, Peninsular Malaysia and South Thailand. However, at the local level it may be seriously threatened; for example, in Java it is on the verge of extinction.a (A.P. Keim & J. Dransfield, A monograph of the genus Orania (Arecaceae: Oranieae) in Kew Bulletin 67. 2012)A

Common Name

  • Ibul (Malay-Peninsula dialect), iwul (Sundanese), kayu baluhur (Malay-Asahan and Padang Sidempuan dialects), pon (Thai-Kao Panom dialect), kapun (Thai-Kao Salaw dialect), lee-boy (Thai- Thalae Ban dialect). (A.P. Keim & J. Dransfield, A monograph of the genus Orania (Arecaceae: Oranieae) in Kew Bulletin 67. 2012)A

Etymology

  • Growing in the forest (A.P. Keim & J. Dransfield, A monograph of the genus Orania (Arecaceae: Oranieae) in Kew Bulletin 67. 2012)A

Uses

  • Trunk is used for building houses. Leaves are used for house thatching. Fruits are said to be poisonous. (A.P. Keim & J. Dransfield, A monograph of the genus Orania (Arecaceae: Oranieae) in Kew Bulletin 67. 2012)A

Description

  • Large palm. Trunk c. 15 m high, c. 15 cm diam. (dbh), internodes c. 8 cm. Leaves c. 15 in the crown, spirally arranged, densely covered with red-brown tomentum, c. 4 - 5 m long; leaf-sheath c. 80 cm, 8 - 10 cm wide, adaxial surface glabrous, abaxial surface with dense red-brown tomentum, margins disintegrating intofibres, straight, c. 5 cm long; petiole c. 1 m long; rachis 2.2 - 3.2 m long, c. 3 cm diam. in the middle; leaflets elongate-lanceolate, regularly arranged leaflets held in one plane, c. 100 in total number, leaflets c. 5.5 - 6 cm distant, c. 1.05 - 1.5 m long, 6.8 - 7 cm wide, adaxial surface dark green, glabrous, with redbrown tomentum on the midrib, midrib robust, other less thick; abaxial surface densely covered with white indumentum, red-brown tomentum on the margin, midrib robust, other ribs less thick. Inflorescence spreading, branching to 2 orders, massive, rather glabrous or with red-brown tomentum, c. 1.5 - 2 m long; prophyll persistent, disintegrating into fibres, c. 45 × 12 cm; peduncle c. 75 - 100 cm long, glabrous or with white indumentum; peduncular bract one, woody, persistent, c. 2 - 2.5 m long, 10 - 11 cm wide near the base; rachis c. 75 - 100 cm long; first order branches c. 41 - 55 cm long, rachillae bract c. 3 - 4 mm long; rachillae conspicuously slender, branching at convergent angle, conspicuously straight, c. 30 - 42 cm long, bearing 100 - 154 flower clusters, bearing triads arranged in proximal c. 2=3 up to 2.5 cm from distal, triads c. 7 - 15 mm distant, the basal c. 1 - 1.7 cm devoid of flowers, sometimes pistillate flowers found in the first order branch. Staminate flowers with calyx of 3 united minute sepals; corolla with 3 free petals, c. 5 - 6 mm long, 2 - 2.5 mm wide; stamens 6, filaments free, dark- brown, c. 0.5 - 0.75 mm long, anthers elongatelanceolate, pale creamy yellow, always free, c. 2.5 - 3 mm long; pistillode absent. Pistillate flowers with calyx of 3 united sepals, c. 0.5 - 0.7 mm long; corolla with 3 free petals, c. 3.5 - 4 mm long, 3 - 4 mm wide; staminodes 6, unequal, 2 being different, larger with hooked tip, c. 10 mm long, otherwise c. 1.2 - 2 mm long; gynoecium dark-brown, c. 3.5 - 4 mm long; stigma with 3 elongate lobes. Fruits globose or bilobed, c. 4.5 - 5 cm diam., dull green when young, yellowish green when mature; epicarp smooth, thin; mesocarp fibrous, 1 - 1.5 mm thick; endocarp thinner, hard, redbrown; endosperm white, c. 3 - 4 cm diam., c. 2.5 cm thick, with a hollow inside, c. 1 - 1.5 cm wide. Embryo placed below middle line of seed. Eophyll bifid. (A.P. Keim & J. Dransfield, A monograph of the genus Orania (Arecaceae: Oranieae) in Kew Bulletin 67. 2012)A

Materials Examined

  • Kao Salaw Kwabi, 26 March 1927, A. F. G. Kerr 12440 (K!); Klaung Ton Satul, 1927, A. F. G. Kerr 14460 (K!); Tamben Kao Panom-Ikrabi, 31 March 1930, A. F. G. Kerr 18802 (K!);Thalae Ban, 20 Km NE of Satun, 5 Nov. 1990, Barfod et al. 41133 (K!). MALAYSIA. West Malaysia. Malay Peninsula: 1850, Griffith collection HEJC 1850 (K! holotype). Pahang: Sedagong, Pulau Tioman, 24 March 1929, Nur 21747 (BO!). Perak: Perak, Scortechini 247b (FI!). East Malaysia. Sarawak: Kampong Piching, First Division, 16 May 1981, J. Dransfield JD 6061 (K!); Kampung Moglos, 18 March 1989, Laitun anak Daud KP 55=11 (K!). SINGAPORE. Chan Cha Kai, 1891, Ridley 3144 (FI!, K!); Pulau Ubin, 1891, Ridley 3146 (FI!, K!). INDONESIA. North Sumatra: Pulo Liman, Padang Sidempuan, 29 Aug. - 3 Sept. 1933, Rahmat Sitoroes 5330 (K!, L!); Padang Lawas, 21 - 27 Sept. 1933, Rahmat Sitoroes 5568 (L!); Pargambiran, Asahan, 18 - 30 Oct. 1933, Rahmat Sibuea 5826 (K!); Sibolangit, Boven Bila, 14 April 1923, J. A. Lörzing 9679 (BO!, L!); Serdang, Gallia Estate above Bangun Purba, 19 Nov. 1928, J. A. Lörzing & van Vreeden 14605 (BO!). North West Sumatra: Anonymous s.n. (FI!). Jambi: Batang Ule, Muara Bungo, July 1992, Valerie Trichon 132 (K!). South Sumatra: Palembang, 27 Feb. 1892, Burmann van Vreeden 160 (BO!). West Java: Depok, near Jakarta, 24 Aug. 1898, S. H. Koorders 31040b (BO!); 16 April 1903, S. H. Koorders 40188b (BO!); 18 April 1903, S. H. Koorders 40190b (BO!, FI!); 14 March 1929, Van Steenis 2836 (BO!); 2 June 1925, J. G. B. Beumeé 6767 (BO!); Cigelung-Dungusiwul, Jasinga, 23 Dec. 1926, J. G. B. Beumeé A.363 (BO!); Dungusiwul Jasinga, 15 May 1971, J. Dransfield JD 1507 (BO!); 15 May 1971, J. Dransfield JD 1508 (BO!, K!, L!); 15 Jan. 1998, A. Keim AK 30 (BO!); 16 Jan. 1998, A. Keim AK 31 (BO!); 20 June 1999, A. Keim AK 49 (BO!, K!). West Kalimantan: Anambas Islands, 1928, Henderson s.n. (K!); Karimata Islands Group, Pulau Penebangan, 20 March 1931, Mondi 120 (BO!); Gunung Palung, Cabang Panti Research Station, 26 July 1990, Palmiotto 1016 (BO!, K!). CULTIVATED. Java: Kebun Raya Bogor, 17 June 1999, A. Keim et al. AK 48 (BO!, K!). Singapore: Singapore Botanic Gardens, 8 Jan. 1933, Kiah 26132 (K!). (A.P. Keim & J. Dransfield, A monograph of the genus Orania (Arecaceae: Oranieae) in Kew Bulletin 67. 2012)A

Bibliography

    A. A.P. Keim & J. Dransfield, A monograph of the genus Orania (Arecaceae: Oranieae) in Kew Bulletin 67. 2012
    B. World Checklist of Arecaceae