Calamus rhabdocladus Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 10: 884 (1930)

Primary tabs

http://media.e-taxonomy.eu/palmae/photos/palm_tc_29879_3.jpg

Distribution

Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
China South-Centralpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
China Southeastpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Hainanpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Laospresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Vietnampresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
China (South Yunnan and South-east China), Laos (North and Central) and Vietnam (Tonkin, North and South Annam). (T. Evans & K. Sengdala & B. Thammavong & O.V. Viengkham & J. Dransfield, A Synopsis of the Rattans (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) of Laos and Neighbouring Parts of Indochina. 2002)A

Discussion

  • The surviving isotype contains tiny fragments of the inflorescence and a photograph of the holotype. Since it is male the inflorescence is fortunately very distinctive. There is no doubt that C. pseudoscutellaris matches C. rhabdocladus. The two were described at about the same time, so Conrard may have been unaware of C. rhabdocladus. The variety cylindrocarpus also falls within the range of normal individual variation. The diagnosis of var. globulosus (fruit sub-globose, scales dark brown) appears to be inadequate in view of the range of shape and colour shown by the material we have examined. (T. Evans & K. Sengdala & B. Thammavong & O.V. Viengkham & J. Dransfield, A Synopsis of the Rattans (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) of Laos and Neighbouring Parts of Indochina. 2002)A

Biology And Ecology

  • Evergreen forest at 500 - 800 m (Laos), 1000 - 1600 m (Vietnam). Also survives in scrub. (T. Evans & K. Sengdala & B. Thammavong & O.V. Viengkham & J. Dransfield, A Synopsis of the Rattans (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) of Laos and Neighbouring Parts of Indochina. 2002)A

Conservation

  • Probably of little concern. (T. Evans & K. Sengdala & B. Thammavong & O.V. Viengkham & J. Dransfield, A Synopsis of the Rattans (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) of Laos and Neighbouring Parts of Indochina. 2002)A

Common Name

  • wai wan, wai bounwan, wai bounyong (Lao Loum), blong salay (Khamu). (T. Evans & K. Sengdala & B. Thammavong & O.V. Viengkham & J. Dransfield, A Synopsis of the Rattans (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) of Laos and Neighbouring Parts of Indochina. 2002)A

Uses

  • The cane is of at least moderate quality for handicrafts and trade. The shoot is edible and, unusually for an Indochinese rattan, sweet. (T. Evans & K. Sengdala & B. Thammavong & O.V. Viengkham & J. Dransfield, A Synopsis of the Rattans (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) of Laos and Neighbouring Parts of Indochina. 2002)A

Description

  • Moderate, clustering, high climbing, flagellate rattan reaching at least 25 m long. Stem without sheath up to 25 mm diam., with sheath 40 - 60 mm. Leaf ecirrate, total length 1 - 2 m, sheath green or yellowish in life with reddish-brown indumentum which dries dark and extends onto the rachis, sheath bearing numerous laminar, elastic, glossy black spines of widely varying sizes up to 4 cm, mostly arranged on raised crests in long, parallel rows, often deflexed, the spines of the sheath mouth longer, up to 10 cm, swept back across the stem and forming a comb, ocrea forming a brittle, well armed band about 1 cm tall, at first continuous across the base of the petiole, soon disintegrating; knee present but indistinct, petiole on upper leaves 20 - 40 cm long, flat or slightly keeled adaxially, rounded abaxially, heavily armed all around with combs of spines similar to those on the sheath, rachis becoming acutely bifaced distally, armed abaxially with small, dark claws; leaflets lanceolate, 30 - 49 x 1.8 - 2 cm, up to 60 per side in upper leaves, interruptedly pinnate, especially towards the base of the rachis, or wholly regularly arranged, all in one plane, parallel, concolorous, adaxially three costae prominent, the two lateral ones and sometimes the central one bearing many small appressed black bristles, abaxially only one costa sub-prominent, without bristles or with two of the non-central costae bristly, leaflet margins bristly, transverse veinlets quite sparse, sinuous, often interrupted. Male inflorescences flagelliform, branched to 3 orders, up to 4 m long excluding the terminal flagellum, often drying cinnamon- red, with pendulous branches; prophyll very densely armed with acicular and laminar black spines up to 2 cm long, primary bracts not lacerate although splitting a little on older inflorescences, tightly sheathing and clawed in their proximal parts, very slightly inflated and densely armed with acicular spines near the bract mouth, mouth with a short, acute limb, partial inflorescences inserted or exserted from the primary bracts, up to 70 cm long; secondary bracts and tertiary bracts unarmed, entire, with short acute limbs; rachillae inserted in the tertiary bracts, tiny, delicate, up to 1.2 (rarely to 2) cm long with a very slender axis, strongly recurved well before anthesis, along each side bearing 3 - 5 flowers spaced less than 2 mm apart, the rachilla bracts very shortly, broadly funnel shaped, 2.5 mm wide at the mouth, involucre inserted in the bract. Flowers not seen at anthesis, those seen 3 mm long, the calyx over 2/3 this length and toothed to about 1/4 of its length. Female inflorescences similar to the male except where noted, up to 4 m long excluding terminal flagellum, branched to two orders, partial inflorescences up to 80 cm long, rachillae up to 8 or even 15 cm long, inserted in the secondary bracts, pendulous, along each side bearing around 16- 22 flowers spaced 4.5 - 6 mm apart, the rachilla bracts funnel shaped, with a small acute limb, 3- 4 mm wide at the mouth, involucrophores inserted in the bracts, involucres and the much smaller cups of the neuter flowers deeply cupular, their shared margin raised in a point well beyond the bract mouth. Female flowers not seen. Fruiting perianth explanate. Fruit ovoid, 14 x 8 mm including a short abrupt beak, the epicarp scales in 12 - 15 vertical rows, when dry yellow with a reddish-brown margin of varying width, slightly channelled. Seed 8 x 4 mm, elongate-ovoid, the surface deeply pitted, the interior thus slightly ruminate. (T. Evans & K. Sengdala & B. Thammavong & O.V. Viengkham & J. Dransfield, A Synopsis of the Rattans (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) of Laos and Neighbouring Parts of Indochina. 2002)A

Materials Examined

  • CHINA (SOUTH YUNNAN): Mengla, Yaoqu, undated, (stam. & fr.), Chen, S. Y 773 (KUN). (SOUTH-EAST CHINA): Guangdong Province, 90 km N of Guangzhou, 13 May 1978, (stam. & fr.), Chen, S. H. & Green, P S. 18530 (K); Guangxi province, Yao Shan, (stam.), undated?, Sin, S. S. & Wang, K. K. 66 (A [fragments]). LAOS (NORTH): Luang Namtha Province, Namtha Distr., Ban Km 49, near Nam Luang and Nam Tha, 3 May 1998, (stam.), Oulathong OL 204 (FRCL, K). (CENTRAL): Khammuane Province, Nakay Distr., Ban Malua (map name Ban Maloy), Phon Nong Na, 8 March 1999, (pist.), Khamphone KP 371 (FRCL, K). VIETNAM (TONKIN): Quang Ninh, Ba'o Phu'ong Hoang, 11 Oct. 1990, (fr.), Thai Tran Bai 633 (LE). (NORTH ANNAM): Ha Tinh Province, Huong Son Distr., An- Ngam village, western slope, 13 April 1992, (stam.), Hiep, N. T et al. 25 (MO, K). (SOUTH ANNAM): Nhatrang, undated, (fr.), Poilane 3460 (P); Haut Donnai Province, near Blao Agricultural Station, Phnom Sapoum, 22 March 1935, (fr.), Poilane 22069 (K, P). (T. Evans & K. Sengdala & B. Thammavong & O.V. Viengkham & J. Dransfield, A Synopsis of the Rattans (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) of Laos and Neighbouring Parts of Indochina. 2002)A

Bibliography

    A. T. Evans & K. Sengdala & B. Thammavong & O.V. Viengkham & J. Dransfield, A Synopsis of the Rattans (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) of Laos and Neighbouring Parts of Indochina. 2002
    B. World Checklist of Arecaceae