Dictyocaryum H.Wendl., Bonplandia (Hannover) 8: 106 (1860)

Primary tabs

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Distribution

Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
Boliviapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Brazil Northpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Colombiapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Ecuadorpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Guyanapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Panamápresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Perupresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Venezuelapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Three species described in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil, Venezuela, Guyana and Panama. (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Discussion

  • There are two very different inflorescence habits within the genus; the inflorescence may be more-or-less erect with wide spreading rachillae, or pendulous and curved in bud with pendulous rachillae. (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Diagnosis

  • Usually robust solitary or clustered pinnate-leaved tree palms of the Andes and foothills, the stems with stilt roots; leaflets are rhomboid, praemorse and are usually longitudinally divided to give the whole leaf an ostrich-feather appearance; fruit has basal stigmatic remains and embryo. (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Biology And Ecology

  • Usually in montane rain forest at medium elevations, on very steep slopes, often occurring in great numbers, and forming a conspicuous component of the forest canopy. Dictyocaryum ptarianum also rarely grows in the lowlands of the Amazon basin. (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Common Name

  • Araque, palma real. (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Etymology

  • Dictyon — a net, karyon — nut, referring to the net-like branching pattern of the raphe on the surface of the seed. (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Uses

  • Specific uses have not been recorded. (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Description

  • Solitary, or very rarely clustered, moderate to robust, unarmed, pleonanthic, monoecious tree palms. Stem erect, slightly or rarely markedly ventricose, conspicuously ringed with leaf scars, with stilt roots bearing short somewhat sharp or cylindrical, lateral roots. Leaves few, pinnate, neatly abscising; sheath forming a conspicuous crownshaft, bearing scattered small scales (?always); petiole short or very short, adaxially channelled at the base, rounded or angled distally, rounded abaxially, sometimes densely tomentose; rachis angled to convex adaxially, rounded abaxially; leaflets massive with numerous ribs, longitudinally divided between the ribs to the base into narrow segments displayed in many planes giving the whole leaf a dense plumose appearance, each segment praemorse at the apex, blade strongly discolorous, abaxially green or densely covered in white indumentum and abundant unbranched hairs and/or dot-like scales, usually 1 large rib per segment, transverse veinlets not evident. Inflorescences solitary, infrafoliar, erect or pendulous and curved, branched to 2 orders, in bud sometimes horn-shaped, protandrous; peduncle winged or not at the base, elongate, rounded in cross-section, massive; prophyll short, 2-keeled, tubular, soon opening at the tip, eventually shed, tomentose; peduncular bracts up to 9, tubular with pointed tips, completely sheathing at first, then splitting apically to allow elongation of the peduncle, proximal few rather short, middle to distal much longer, conspicuously beaked, all shed at anthesis, prophyll and peduncular bracts coriaceous to woody; rachis ± equalling to much longer than the peduncle; rachis bracts spirally arranged, triangular, proximally conspicuous; first-order branches spreading, swollen at the base with a long bare portion, the proximal bearing about 3–4 rachillae, distal unbranched; rachillae slender, elongate, flexuous, very numerous, bearing rather distant, spirally arranged triads proximally, paired and solitary staminate flowers distally. Staminate flowers fleshy, sessile, ± symmetrical; sepals 3, distinct, imbricate, rounded, strongly gibbous basally; petals much longer than the sepals, 3, slightly connate at the base, ± lanceolate, valvate; stamens 6, filaments short, broad, fleshy, anthers elongate, basifixed, latrorse; pistillode short, broad, columnar, rounded or minutely trifid at the apex. Pollen ellipsoidal, ± bi-symmetric; aperture a distal sulcus; ectexine intectate, coarsely granular to gemmate, granulae/gemmae often coalesced into larger irregular units, aperture margin similar; longest axis 24–30 µm [3/3]. Pistillate flowers smaller than the staminate, sessile; sepals 3, distinct, rounded, imbricate, thick; petals ca. 3 times as long as the sepals, ± triangular, imbricate; staminodes 6, minute, strap-like or tooth-like; gynoecium tricarpellate, triovulate, rounded, tipped with 3 low stigmas, ovule probably anatropous. Fruit developing from 1 carpel, globose or ellipsoidal, with basal carpel and stigmatic remains; epicarp smooth, usually yellow at maturity, dark brown when dry, mesocarp thick with outer layer of sclereids and inner layer of tannin and fibres, endocarp very thin, scarcely differentiated. Seed spherical, basally attached, seed coat thick with a conspicuous network of raphe fibres, hilum rounded, endosperm homogeneous; embryo basal. Germination adjacent-ligular; eophyll bifid. Cytology not studied. (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Anatomy

  • Leaf and seed (Roth 1990), and root (Seubert 1998a, 1998b). (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Fossil record

  • Small monosulcate grains, Palmaemargosulcites insulatus, from palm flower compression fossils, recovered from the Middle Eocene oil shales of Messel, Germany, are compared with pollen of Dictyocaryum and Dypsis (Harley 1997). (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Relationships

  • The monophyly of Dictyocaryum has not been tested. For relationships, see Iriartella. (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Taxonomic accounts

  • Henderson (1990). (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Use Record

  • Dictyocaryum H.Wendl.: (…). The trunk of Oenocarpus mapora is sometimes used as a house post. In the construction of secondary or temporary buildings, the use of the trunks of Jessenia bataua has also been observed. The floors of village houses are commonly made from the beaten trunk of Iriartea deltoidea, Dictyocaryum sp. (Mejia 0065), known locally as "pona colorada" and Socratea exorrhiza (Mart.) Wendl. (Mejia 0121) or "cashapona." (Mejía, K., Las palmeras en los mercados de Iquitos. 1992)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionHousesStemMestizoN/APeru

Bibliography

A. J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008
B. World Checklist of Arecaceae