Ceroxylon ventricosum Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 10: 847 (1929)

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Distribution

Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
Colombiapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)C
Ecuadorpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)C
Grows from the South of Colombia (Central Cordilllera, western slope in Cauca and Eastern slopes of the Andes in Putumayo) to the south-east of Ecuador, in moist montane forest or kept on pastures, at (1800-)2000-3000 m, usually above 2500 m. It is commonly found forming stands of hundreds of individuals. It is also cultivated as ornamental in Ecuador (Borchsenius et al. 1998). (Maria Jose Sanin & Gloria Geleano in Phytotaxa 34 (2011))B

The Andes in SW Colombia and Ecuador, at high elevations. Sometimes planted as an ornamental in the highland, e.g., in Quito (Plaza de Argentina) and at the central square in Guaranda. (Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador)A

Discussion

  • Ceroxylon ventricosum is characterized by its massive, robust and white stem, by its leaves twisted 90° on distal portion thereby holding the pinnae in a vertical position, the pinnae pendulous and arranged in hardly discernible groups toward the middle of the leaves, staminate flowers with 9-11 stamens and smooth fruits. The best way to distiguish it from C. quindiuense is in its grouped pinnae spreading in various planes, whereas, C. quindiuense has regularly arranged, pendulous (in one plane) pinnae. (Maria Jose Sanin & Gloria Geleano in Phytotaxa 34 (2011))B

Conservation

Common Name

Uses

  • The split stems are used for fencing and house construction. The fruits are fed to pigs that are set loose on the palm stands during the fruiting season, and because of this, the palms are protected in the pastures and in the forest. (Maria Jose Sanin & Gloria Geleano in Phytotaxa 34 (2011))B

Description

  • Canopy palm. Stem solitary, ventricose, to 30 m tall and 60 cm in diameter in the middle, white, with conspicuous dark leaf scars. Leaves 3-5 m long; pinnae ca. 150 on each side, inserted in groups and spreading in different planes, erect, with pendulous distal half, the central ones to 1 m long and 3-6 cm wide, below with a thin, silverish layer of wax. Inflorescences erect, to 350 cm long, branched 3 times. Fruits 10-15 mm in diameter, smooth, light red at maturity. (Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador)A
  • Stem 6-25(-35) m tall, 20-44(-60) cm diam., white at base and turning green towards apex, covered with thick layer of wax.
    Leaves 16-20, in a dense, hemispheric crown; sheath 100-150 cm long, abaxially covered with thick layer of persistent yellowish or brownish, degraded scales; petiole 30-59 cm long, 6-10 cm wide at the apex; rachis 250-334 cm long, twisted 90° on distal portion thereby holding the pinnae in a vertical position, adaxially flattened in 1/3-1/5 of its length, hastula-like projection 1 mm long, glabrescent, abaxial surface covered with appressed, white, translucent scales that are often degraded; pinnae 118-151 on each side, arranged toward the middle of the leaf in groups of 2-4(-7), very close to each other, oriented in slightly divergent planes, but basal and apical pinnae regularly arranged or tending to a disposition at regular intervals, the terminal half of each pinnae pendulous, abaxial surface covered with long, yellowish scales; the basal, filiform pinnae 21-39 × 0.2-0.3 mm, basal pinnae (10th from base) 39-86 × 0.8-1.5 cm, middle pinnae 76-115 × (2.5-)3.4-6.2 cm, apical pinnae 17-38 × 0.3-1.0 cm, free.
    Staminate inflorescences peduncle glabrescent; prophyll 41 cm long; peduncular bracts various, with an additional smaller bract inserted at the base of peduncle; rachis 79 cm long, with 93 branches, each subtended by a subulate membranaceous, acuminate bract 0.2-3.0 cm long; longest branches 31 cm long; rachis and branches glabrescent.
    Pistillate inflorescences: peduncle 199-240 cm long, 4.0 cm wide at the apex; prophyll 62 cm long; peduncular bracts 5, up to 206 cm long, and an additional, 7 cm bract inserted more distally on the peduncle; rachis 87-141 cm long, with 64-87 branches, each subtended by a 0.2-2.0 cm membranous bract, longest branches in basal half, 39-63 cm long; prophyll, peduncle and bracts covered with persistent, brown to ferrugineous, fibres of interlocked scales, rachis and rachillae glabrous.
    Staminate flowers: sepals 3, broadly triangular, 1.0-1.1 mm long, connate in 0.3 mm (1/3 of total length), not reaching to exceeding total length of corolla tube; petals 3, elliptical, long-acuminate, 5-6 mm long, including an acumen of 1 mm long, connate in 1.0-1.5 mm; stamens 9-11, 3-6 antisepalous stamens, and 3-8 antipetalous stamen, filaments 1.5-2.5 mm long, inserted at 2/3 basal portion of anther, anthers 2.0-2.5 mm long, anther connective not projected.
    Pistillate flowers: sepals 3, broadly triangular-acuminate, 1.5 mm long, connate for 0.6-1.0 mm (½-2/3 of total length), not reaching corolla tube, petals 3, elliptical-acuminate, 4.0-6.5 mm long, including an acumen of 2-3 mm long, connate up to 1.2-2.0 mm; staminodes 9-11, 1 antisepalous, 2-3 antipetalous, filaments 1 mm long, abortive anthers 0.9-1.2 mm long, pistil trifid, 2-3 mm diam.
    Fruits globose, orange-red when ripe, 1.5-1.8 cm diam., exocarp smooth; fruiting perianth with sepals elliptical-acuminate, 1.0-1.5 mm long, connate in 0.2, lobes exceeding corolla tube, petals 3, elliptical-acuminate, connate in 0.8 mm.
    Seeds ca. 1.3 cm diam. (Maria Jose Sanin & Gloria Geleano in Phytotaxa 34 (2011))B

Materials Examined

  • COLOMBIA. Cauca: Cordillera Central, Western slopes, headwaters of Río Palo, Santo Domingo creek, left slope, forests, 2750-2850 m, 14 December 1944, J. Cuatrecasas 19322(st.fl., pist.fl., immat.fr.) (BH, US); between Tacueyó and Huila (Tagala), January 1906, C. B. Doyle 233(st.fl.) (US). Putumayo: Valle de Sibundoy, Vereda Tonjoy, 2550 m, 13 January 2000, R. Bernal et al. 2477(fr.) (COL); Valle del Sibundoy, extremo Este, Junto a San Francisco, 2200 m, 1 Jaunuary 1941, J. Cuatrecasas 11576 (st.fl.) (COL). ECUADOR. Bolívar: Jamirán, church of Chillanes, 6 November 1943, M. Acosta Solís 6743 (mat.fr.) (F), 6763 (st.fl.) (F); Urcu-Corral, 2600-3000 m, 3 November 1943, M. Acosta Solís 6621 (st.fl.) (F). Carchi: Cantón Espejo, km 5 of surveyed road, Maldonado to Tulcán, ca. 3000 m, 1 August 1935, I. Mexia 7564 (pist.fl.) (BH, US). Cotopaxi: Cantón Pilalo, on the way to the summit of Cerro Puchuato, cloud forest, moist low montane forest (00°55'S, 79°09' W), 1800-2500 m, 5 December 1987, C. Cerón & S. Villavicencio 2830 (st.fl.) (AAU, MO). Zamora-Chinchipe: Loja-Zumba road, 6 km South of Yangana, 2020 m, 79°10' W, 04°24' S, 17 May 1987, H. Balslev et al. 62536 (st.fl.) (AAU, COL, QCA, QCNE). (Maria Jose Sanin & Gloria Geleano in Phytotaxa 34 (2011))B

Use Record