Calamus guruba Buch.-Ham., Hist. Nat. Palm. 3: 211 (1838)

Primary tabs

http://media.e-taxonomy.eu/palmae/photos/palm_tc_29554_1.jpg

Distribution

Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
Assam present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Bangladesh present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Cambodia present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
China South-Central present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
East Himalaya present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
India present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Laos present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Malaya present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Myanmar present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Thailand present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
India (North-central and North-east), Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand (East, South-east and Peninsular), Laos (South) and Peninsular Malaysia. Also probably Cambodia (Gagnepain & Conrard 1937). (T. Evans, A Synopsis of the Rattans (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) of Laos and Neighbouring Parts of Indochina. 2002)A

Discussion

  • Three species have usually been recognised in this group. They are diagnosed principally on the number of bristly or prominent costae on the upper and lower leaflet surfaces, although Furtado (1956) notes various other insignificant differences. C. nitidus has five bristly nerves adaxially, only the middle one prominent, and one sparsely bristly, not prominent costa abaxially; C. multirameus has one prominent bristly costa adaxially and 3 - 5 abaxially; and C. guruba has 1 - 3 prominent bristly costae adaxially and usually only one bristly, prominent costa abaxially, rarely three. These criteria were re-assessed by scoring all material available in K and P (data available from authors). Specimens were only included if it was possible to examine both sides of several leaflets from the middle or lower part of the rachis. There were many more character states than the three formerly reported, with almost every combination observed of prominent and/or bristly veins of different numbers. These states show no geographical pattern. More than one state can be found on a single plant or even a single leaf. We consider that the most appropriate explanation is that this represents a strongly variable character within a single, well-defined species for which the first name available is C. guruba. Beccari (1913) sank C. multirameus in C. guruba but Furtado (1956) revived it. The Thorel material was erroneously placed in Cochinchina (Vietnam) by Beccari (1913) and in Cambodia by Gagnepain & Conrard (1937). There appear to be no specimen records from Vietnam (T. Evans, A Synopsis of the Rattans (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) of Laos and Neighbouring Parts of Indochina. 2002)A

Biology And Ecology

  • In Laos, scrub forest, often by rivers, at 100 m. In Thailand, evergreen forest up to 750 m. (T. Evans, A Synopsis of the Rattans (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) of Laos and Neighbouring Parts of Indochina. 2002)A

Conservation

  • Widespread and so probably of little concern, although Renuka (1999) notes that the Indian populations have declined considerably in recent years. (T. Evans, A Synopsis of the Rattans (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) of Laos and Neighbouring Parts of Indochina. 2002)A

Common Name

  • wai deng (Lao Loum), wai kikai (Thailand). (T. Evans, A Synopsis of the Rattans (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) of Laos and Neighbouring Parts of Indochina. 2002)A

Uses

  • Cane used in handicrafts, trade potential unknown in Indochina but reported to be a highly sought-after species in West Bengal (Sarkar 1999). Shoot edible. (T. Evans, A Synopsis of the Rattans (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) of Laos and Neighbouring Parts of Indochina. 2002)A

Materials Examined

  • INDIA (NORTH-CENTRAL): Orissa, Ranpur, Nilpara, 6 Aug. 1940, (ster.), Mooney, H. F 1364 (K). (NORTH-EAST): Bengal, Cachar, Doud-puthi?, undated, (fr.), Hooker & Thompson s.n. E108 (K); Assam, undated, (pist.), Griffith s.n. (BM). BANGLIADE~SH: Chittagong Hill Tracts, Pharoka, 27 Feb. 1879, (stam.), Gamble 6759 A+B (K). MYANMAR: Central Provinces, Nimtha, Suracha? Range, 29 Oct. 1912, (fr.), Haines, H. H. 3686 (K), Tenasserim, undated, (pist.), Wallich 8609 (K). THAILAND (EAST): Saraburi Province, Khao Yai National Park, 26 March 1979, (stam.), Dransfield, J. & T Santisuk 5458 (K, BKF). (SOUTH-EAST): Chantabun, Klawng Chantabun, 4 Dec. 1924, (fr.), Kerr, A. 9414A (K, BK). (PENINSULAR): Krabi, Ban Kang, 9 Nov. 1930, (fr.), Kerr 19811 (K). LAOS (SOUTH): Attapeu Province, Sanamxay Distr., Ban Hin Lat, near Xe Pian R., 17 May 1999, Khamphone KP 411 (FRCL, K). MALAYSIA (PENINSULAR): Perak, Dinding Ridley 8405 (SING). (T. Evans, A Synopsis of the Rattans (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) of Laos and Neighbouring Parts of Indochina. 2002)A

Bibliography

    A. T. Evans, A Synopsis of the Rattans (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) of Laos and Neighbouring Parts of Indochina. 2002
    B. World Checklist of Arecaceae