Bactris grayumii de Nevers & A.J.Hend., Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. , IV, 49: 188 (1996)

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Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (
Costa Rica present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Nicaragua present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Nicaragua (Chontales, Zelaya) and Costa Rica (Limón).
Lowland rain forest at 1-280 m elevation. (Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000)A


  • Bactris grayumii is diagnosed by its leathery pinnae, with prominent veins adaxially, and ovoid, orange fruits. It is a member of a group of species confined to Central America and the Pacific coast of Colombia and Ecuador. It may occur sympatrically with Bactris neomilitaris, which it resembles in its usually simple leaves, but these are ovate, shorter and wider, and do not have parallel margins. Bactris grayumii is also distinguished by its recurved inflorescences. The fruits of B. grayumii resemble those of B. mexicana, and the inflorescences those of B. caudata. (Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000)A


  • Stems cespitose, 1.5-3.5 m tall, 2.2-3 cm diam., usually spiny on internodes.
    Leaves 4-9; leaf spines scattered, black, terete, to 6 cm long, few on sheath, petiole, and abaxial surface of rachis; sheath 20-29 cm long; ocrea not seen; petiole 40-45 cm long; rachis 29-70 cm long; blade usually simple and deeply bifid, cOncave, thick and leathery, strongly plicate, with prominent veins adaxially, occasionally irregularly pinnate; blade to 1 m long, 36-38 cm wide at apex of rachis, when pinnate the pinnae 55-90 x 2.5-10 cm (the apical one much wider).
    Inflorescences interfoliar; peduncle 10-11 cm long, strongly recurved, glabrous or spiny; prophyll 11-12 cm long; peduncular bract 23-27 cm long, sparsely covered with short black spines to 0.5 cm long, occasionally almost glabrous; rachis 1.8-3 cm long; rachillae 18-25, 5-6 cm long; triads irregularly arranged among paired or solitary staminate flowers; staminate flowers not seen; pistillate flowers to 3.5 mm long; calyx annular, to 1 mm long; corolla urceolate, to 3 mm long; staminodes absent; fruits 1.1-1.3 x 0.9-1.1 cm, obovoid, bluntly rostrate, orange; mesocarp mealy; endocarp turbinate, the sterile pores displaced longitudinally; endocarp fibers few, free, terete; fruiting perianth with a minutely 3-lobed calyx and truncate corolla, without staminodial ring. (Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000)A


    A. Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000
    B. World Checklist of Arecaceae