Hyphaene coriacea Gaertn., Fruct. Sem. Pl. 1: 28 (1788)

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Introduction

  • A common species at low altitudes in the West. This species occurs in continental Africa and some islands between Madagascar and Africa in the same habitat; it is one of the few palms which occurs both in Madagascar and elsewhere, but we believe it is native. (Dransfield, J. & Beentje, H. 1995: The Palms of Madagascar)A

Distribution

W Madagascar. (Dransfield, J. & Beentje, H. 1995: The Palms of Madagascar)A

Biology And Ecology

  • Littoral or inland, in grassland or wooded grassland, especially on sand; slight slope or on the flat; able to withstand fire, and sometimes locally common; 1-300 m. (Dransfield, J. & Beentje, H. 1995: The Palms of Madagascar)A

Conservation

  • Not threatened: widespread and common. (Dransfield, J. & Beentje, H. 1995: The Palms of Madagascar)A

Common Name

  • Satrana (Antankarana, Sakalava); Sata (Sakalava, fide Hildebrandt). (Dransfield, J. & Beentje, H. 1995: The Palms of Madagascar)A

Uses

  • Leaf fibres used in basketry, hat-making, rope-making. Palm heart edible. Sometimes used to make palm wine. (Dransfield, J. & Beentje, H. 1995: The Palms of Madagascar)A

Description

  • Clustering palm, often seeming solitary, in groups of 2-6. TRUNK 1-6 m high, 10-20 cm diam., usually unbranched but occasionally branched, clothed in old leaf-bases, with distinctive criss-cross pattern. LEAVES 9-20 in the crown, porrect or spreading with the rachis recurved, to 1.8 m, and to c. 9 marcescent ones; sheath open, split at the base for up to 40 cm, 38-40 cm long, waxy, brown, with fibrous margins; petiole 60-97 cm long, proximally 4-6 x c. 3 cm, mid-way flattened, c. 2 cm wide with black triangular spines to 1 cm long and curved towards the distal end, distally 1-3.5 x 1.5 cm, pale brown, waxy, with scattered scales; adaxial hastula an oblique, erose fringe to 6 mm high; costa 27- 60 cm long; lamina c. 70 cm long, 112 cm wide, with 39-55 segments, the sinuses with conspicuous filaments, outer folds 31-48 x 1.2-2.6 cm, divided to the base or unsplit for 2-7 cm, more inner ones to 63-82 x 4-5 cm, unsplit for up to 20 cm, central folds 40-58 x 1.2-4 cm, unsplit for 7-9 cm, main veins 1-2, apices attenuate and bifid over 1-1.5 cm, midrib with dense to scattered dark brown and grey scales, the faint parallel minor veins with scattered reddish scales. STAMINATE INFLORESCENCES interfoliar, branched to 2 orders; rachillae solitary or in groups of 2-4, 9-36 cm long, 0.7-1.2 cm diam., the rachillar axes waxy and with reddish scales; bracts 2-3 x 3-3.5 mm, densely stellate-hairy. STAMINATE FLOWERS with sepals imbricate, 2.5-3 x 0.8-1.6 mm, narrowly obovate with a rounded apex; corolla greenish, the stalk 1-2 mm high, the lobes 2-2.8 x 1.5-1.8 mm, (slightly) spathulate and hooded, rounded; stamens with filaments 0.8-1.8 mm and thin, connate with their fleshy bases, anthers 1-1.8 x 0.6-0.8 mm, dorsifixed, versatile, yellow; pistillode not seen. PISTILLATE INFLORESCENCES interfoliar, 60-120 cm long, branched to 1 order with 2-5 rachillae, pendulous in fruit; peduncle 43-56 cm long with 4-5 bracts; bracts 17-19 cm long and distally scaly; rachillae with the stalk c. 20 cm long, the fertile part 14-21 cm long, 0.8-1.2 mm diam. PISTILLATE FLOWERS with the rachilla bract c. 2 mm high, c. 8 mm wide, inside near the base with dense hairs (?from the rachilla); pedicel 0.5-4 mm high, densely pubescent; sepals 3.5-4.5 x 2.2-3.6 mm; petals 2.5-3.7 x 2-3.2 mm, slightly obovate, obtuse with a ciliolate apex; staminodes connate at the base, 1.5-2 mm high, thin; ovary angular-globose, 3.2-3.5 x 2-3.3 mm. FRUIT irregularly top-shaped, 5-6 cm high, 4-6 cm diam., on a densely hairy pedicel up to 12 x 7 mm; mesocarp fibrous; endocarp hard, woody and fibrous. SEED c. 2.7 x 2.7 cm; endosperm homogeneous with central hollow. (Dransfield, J. & Beentje, H. 1995: The Palms of Madagascar)A

Materials Examined

  • Antsiranana: Bay de Rigny, Sept. 1848 (fl.), Boivin 2282 (P). Iharana: 30 km NW of Daraina, June 1992 (fr.), Beentje 4694 (K, TAN). Analalava: Maromandia, June 1923 (fl.), Decary 2111 (P, TAN). Marovoay: Marovoay, sine die (fl.), Perrier 11952 (P); idem, Dec. 1926 (fl.), Perrier 17872 (K, P); 16 km W of Ampijoroa, Dec. 1991 (fl.), Beentje 4552 (BH, K, MO, P, TAN). Ambato Boeni: Anjiajia, Aug. 1952 (fl.), Bosser 3506 (P, TAN). Maevatanana: Tsinjorano near Ikopa R., July 1898 (fl.), Perrier 679 (P). Ihosy: Isalo, Oct. 1924 (fl.), Humbert 2856bis (P). Manja: Beravi, June 1879 (fl., y.fr.), Hildebrandt 3052 (K, P; type of H. hildebrandtii). Betioky: Beza Mahafaly Reserve near Fitanabo, May 1987 (juv.), Phillipson 1767 (P, TAN). LOCALITY UNCLEAR. NW Madagascar, Mananda to Mahabo (?), Sept. 1866 (fl.), Grandidier s.n. (P); N Madagascar, anno 1837 (fl.), Richard 144 (P). Without any locality: Lam & Meeuse 6135 (L, P). (Dransfield, J. & Beentje, H. 1995: The Palms of Madagascar)A

Bibliography

    A. Dransfield, J. & Beentje, H. 1995: The Palms of Madagascar