Neonicholsonia watsonii Dammer, Gard. Chron. , III, 30: 179 (1901)

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Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (
Costa Rica present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Honduras present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Nicaragua present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Panamá present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Atlantic and Pacific slopes in Honduras (Gracias a Dios), Nicaragua (Zelaya), Costa Rica (Alajuela, Guanacaste, Puntarenas), and Panama (Chiriquí); understory of lowland rain forests, usually at low elevations but occasionally to 600 m or more, on slopes and ridges of low hills. (Gloria Galeano & A. Henderson: Flora Neotropica, Monograph 72)A

Common Name

  • Costa Rica: coladegallo. (Gloria Galeano & A. Henderson: Flora Neotropica, Monograph 72)A


  • Stems solitary, very shortly aerial, 10-15(-100) cm long, with prominent roots visible at base.
    Leaves 4-9, spreading; sheath closed, not forming a crownshaft, 20-30 cm long including a ligule 1-2 cm long; petiole 0.24-1 m long; rachis 1-1.2 m long; pinnae 11-15 per side, regularly spaced, alternate, linear-lanceolate, aristate, horizontally spreading in the same plane, with prominent mid vein, lacking scales and punctations abaxially; basal pinna 22-37 x 0.5-2.5 cm; middle pinnae 32-49 x 2.5-5.5 cm; apical pinna 17-27 x 1-1.5 cm.
    Inflorescences interfoliar, erect in bud and at anthesis; peduncle 67-98 cm long, 0.5 cm diam., terete, with a few, brown, appressed scales; prophyll 18-45 cm long, 1.5-2 cm diam., flattened; peduncular bract 0.7-1 m long including a 2- 3 cm long umbo, 1-1.5 cm diam., ± terete; rachis absent; rachilla 27-51 cm long, 3 mm diam. at anthesis, 4 mm diam. in fruit , with dense to loose clusters of intertwined, whitish, flexuous, hairs to 0.3 mm long; triads slightly sunken in rachilla, very closely spaced; flowers in triads for ca. ? the length of rachilla, paired or solitary staminate distally; triad bracteole raised, rounded; first flower bracteole apiculate, second and third flower bracteoles prominent, apiculate, 0.7 mm high; staminate flowers 4-5 mm long; sepals connate into a prominently 3-lobed cupule, 2-3 mm long; petals lanceolate, 4-5 mm long; filaments slightly connate proximally, free distally, 3 longer (3.5 mm long) and 3 shorter (2.5 mm long); anthers 3 mm long; pistillode trifid , 1-2 mm long; pistillale flowers 4.5 mm long; sepals deltate, 3 mm long; petals deltate, 4 mm long; fruits ellipsoid-oblong, 0.9-1 cm long, 0.5-0.6 cm diam., the stigmatic remains apical; epicarp black; seeds ± globose, ca. 5 mm diam.; endosperm deeply ruminate; eophyll pinnale with short rachis. (Gloria Galeano & A. Henderson: Flora Neotropica, Monograph 72)A

Materials Examined

  • HONDURAS. GRACIAS ADIOS: Krautara, Rio Patuca, 15°02'N, 84°40'W, House s.n. (K).
    NICARAGUA. ZELAYA: Cerro El Inocente. ca. 13°45'N, 85°W, 9 Mar 1978, Stevens 6797 (BH, US); trail from Cerro Saslaya to San José del Hormiguero, 13°44'N, 84°57'W, 13 Mar 1978, Stevens 7072 (US).
    COSTA RICA. AlAJUELA: Plains of San Carlos, 13 Apr 1903, Cook & Doyle 58 (US); rd. between Cañas and Upala, 10 km N of Bijagua, 200 m, 26 Jun 1976, Croat 36463 (K); vic. of Guatuso de San Rafael, 10°43'N, 84°48'W, 80-100 m, 4 Aug 1949, Holm & Iltis 908 (BH); Las Flores, Hacienda Tenorio, 22 Apr 1953, Moore 6734 (BH, K); 5.6 km beyond Tronadora toward Arenal, 3 Mar 1974, Read & Daniels 7412 (US).
    GUANACASTE: Río Las Flores, Hacienda Montezuma, 10°40'N, 85°04'W, 450 m, 25 Jan 1985, Grayum et al. 4876 (NY); Parque Rincón de la Vieja, Hacienda Santa María, 10°48'N, 85°19'W, 10 Oct 1987, Herrera & Rivera 828 (K); Tilarán, 10-31 Jan 1926, Standley & Valerio 44254 (US); Naranjos Agrios, 29 Jan 1926, Standley & Valerio 46496 (US); 3 km N of Río Naranjo, 10°42'N, 85°04'W, 500 m, 5 Jan 1975, Taylor 18105 (NY).
    PUNTARENAS: 2 km W of Palmar Norte, 08°58'N, 83°28'W, 300 m, 24 May 1986, de Nevers et al. 7748 (NY); Fila de Cal, between Las Cruces and Nelly, l00-1400m 7 Jan 1983, Gómez 19656, 19657 (K); trail from Golfito airport to Quebrada Naranjal, 28 Dec 1984, Henderson 76 (K, NY); Golfito, nr. the airstrip, Golfo Dulce, 14 Sep 1964, Lems, 64091402 (NY); Fila de Cal, on rd. from San Vito de Java to Corredor, between Agua Buena and Calero, ca. 800 m, 30 Jan 1967, Moore & Parthasarathy 9419 (BH); above Centro Picnic and Water Tower, Golfito, 15 Nov 1973, Moore & McAlpin s.n. (BH); rd. from Las Cruces to Panama border, 3 km from Río Caña, 14 Dec 1961, Read 641 (BH); above Villa Neily on rd. from Golfito to San Vito de Java, Mar 1976, Wilson 70-265 (BH).
    PANAMA. CHIRIQUI: Cerro de la Plata, nr. San Felix, 17 Dec 1911, Pittier 5167 (US). (Gloria Galeano & A. Henderson: Flora Neotropica, Monograph 72)A


    A. Gloria Galeano & A. Henderson: Flora Neotropica, Monograph 72
    B. World Checklist of Arecaceae