Allagoptera arenaria (Gomes) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 726 (1891)

Primary tabs


Distribution and Ecology. Heliophilous, dominant in restinga and low coastal dunes of eastern Brazil , in Bahia, Rio de Janeiro, and Espírito Santo. It occurs on white sandy soils from sea level to 100m. (Mónica Moraes: Flora Neotropica, monograph 73, Allagoptera, ser. 73) (Mónica Moraes: Flora Neotropica, monograph 73, Allagoptera, ser. 73)A


  • The variable number of stamens in Allagoptera arenaria being 10-18 is the one of the main diagnostic characters used to include the descriptions of Cocos arenaria by Gomes (1812) and A. pumila by Nees (1821) under A. arenaria. In the original description, Gomes (1812) mentioned Rio de Janeiro as the only locality for Cocos arenaria, but no information was given for his illustration; nor was the collector and the specimen on which he based his description. It could not be found in herbaria in Portugal or Brazil. Probably he worked with cultivated material. Martius (1826) described Diplothemium maritimum and D. littorale as separate species, based on two phenological states of the species A. arenaria; the first name was based on plants with flowers and the second on plants with fruits.
    Wied-Neuwied (1821) announced that Martius was going to describe A. pumila in his work on Brazilian palms. Wied-Neuwied also referred to a collection brought by Martius from Brazil, but unfortunately no herbarium contains that material; the search was done at M, B, LE, and several Brazilian herbaria. (Mónica Moraes: Flora Neotropica, monograph 73, Allagoptera, ser. 73)A

Common Name

  • Brazil: buri da praia, cachandó, caxandó, côco da praia, coqueiro da praia, côco guriri, guri, guriri, imburi , pissandó, coqueiro dos areais, coqueiro guriri, buri da praia, puraná. (Mónica Moraes: Flora Neotropica, monograph 73, Allagoptera, ser. 73)A


  • Fruits edible; leaves used for binding; ornamental plant; potential use for paper manufacturing. (Mónica Moraes: Flora Neotropica, monograph 73, Allagoptera, ser. 73)A


  • Plant 1.5-2 m tall, stem to 1.5 m long, 10 cm diam., subterranean, rhizomatose.
    Leaves 6- 10; sheath not tubular, fibrous; peliole 45-60 cm long, ca. 1 cm diam., covered with woolly indumentum mostly on basal portion; rachis 50-55 cm long, smooth and glabrous or with scarce white glands or with woolly hairs; pinnae 35-53 per side, broad and long-lanceolate, with acute tips, regularly inserted in groups of (1-)2-3(-4), 2-3 cm apart, inserted to rachis and spreading at different angles, glabrous at base or with ramenta to 3 mm long, the transverse veinlets evident adaxially, lemon-green and lustrous waxy adaxially, brown-glaucous and waxy abaxially, obtuse apex asymmetrically split for 0.3-0.5 cm, with midrib prominent adaxially and depressed abaxially; basal pinnae 25-35 x 0.8-1.1 cm; middle pinnae 20-45 x 1.1-2 cm; apical pinnae 6-24 x 0.1-0.6 cm. Inflorescences 65-100 cm long; peduncle 55-85 cm long, 0.4-0.6 cm diam., robust, muricate, scarcely to densely covered with floccose hairs; rachilla 10-15 cm long, bearing scarious bracteoles; prophyll 20-30 cm, tubul ar, scarious, covered with woolly indumentum in base; peduncular bract 60-80 cm long, 3-6 cm diam., apiculate, woody, sulcate, beige externally, brown-violet and glabrous internally; peduncular bracts 1 or 2, 0.5-2.5 cm long, brown, scarious, revolute or apiculate, inserted 2 cm from apex of peduncle. Staminate flowers 9-11 mm long, the pedicel 3-5 mm, inserted perpendicular to rachilla; sepals free, glabrous, coriaceous, 2 ca. 5 x 1.5 mm, one larger ca. 7 x 1.5 mm; petals valvate, free, glabrous, coriaceous, ca. 6.5 x 3 mm; stamens (12-)14-18 proximally, sometimes 10 stamens distally, ca. 2.5 mm long, the filaments columnar, the anthers sagittate at both ends; pistillode simple. Pistillate flowers sessile on proximal 4-11 cm of rachilla; sepals free, trapezoid, ca. 5 x 6 mm, imbricate to the right, apiculate with papillose hairs on superior rim; petals free, triangular, ca. 5 x 4 mm, imbricate to the right, apiculate with papillose hairs on lateral to basal margins; staminodial ring to 1.5 mm with 6 short teeth; pistil conical, 3-4 mm; stigma trifid, glabrous. Fruit ovoid to turbinate, with orange to yellowish floccose hairs or tomentose from base of stigmas to middle, 1.2-2 cm long, 1- 1.3 cm diam., perpendicular to rachilla, the stigmatic remnants erect with stigmas to 3 mm long, the persistent perianth longer than ½ of fruit; seed 1-2; n = 16 (Read, 1966). (Mónica Moraes: Flora Neotropica, monograph 73, Allagoptera, ser. 73)A

Materials Examined

  • BRAZIL. BAHIA: 8 Dec 1981 (fl, fr), Lewis & Carvalho 819(K); on rd. BA 001, 5 km S from Alcobaca, 17 Mar 1978 (fr), Mori et al. 9626 (NY); Cabralia, near Mojicicaba. 10 m. 18 Jan 1989 (fl, fr), Noblick 4752 (LPB, NY); 22 km SE from Helvécia, 50-100m, 22 Feb 1989 (fl), Noblick & Brito 4784 (LPB); 5 km from rd. Nova Viscosa, to Posto de Mata. 24 Mar 1973, Pinheiro 2114( RB ).
    ESPIRITO SANTO: Conceicão da Barra, 24 Dec 1975 (fr), Bamps 5051 (NY); Santa Cruz, Esta?ão de Biologia Marinha, 9 Aug 1986 (fr), H. B. Fernandes 2010 (NY); Reserva Biológica Comboios, IBAMA, Regência, 8 Mar 1990 (fl , fr), Folli 1103 (NY); Ponta do Mansaraz, 6 Aug 1983 (fI), Hatschbach 46760 (NY); without locality, 1816-1821 , Saint-Hilaire 298 (P).
    RIO DE JANEIRO; Restinga Marambaia, 15 Apr 1977 (fl), Araujo 1580 (NY); without locality, 3 Jan 1924, Bailey & Bailey 468 (BH); Leblon beach, 23°00'S, 17 Jan 1924 (fl), Bailey & Bailey 626 (BH); Pedra de Itaúna, 19 Aug 1973 (fl, fr), Berg 231 (U); Reserva Biológica Jacarepaguá, ca. 25 km W from Rio de Janeiro, 3 May 1969 (fr), Colaris 1044 (U); Jardim Botanico, Captain Marshall Field Brazilian Expedition, 1926 (fl, fr), Dahlgren s.n. (F); between Magambaba beach and Araruama lake, 10 m, 12 Jul 1979 (fl), A. J. Fernandes 4 (RB); between San Pedro d' Aldeia and Barra de Sáo Joáo, 15 Aug 1982 (fr), H. B. Fernandes et al. 523 (NY); Barra da Tijuca, 2 Nov 1962 (fr), Fosberg 43379 (NY, US); Ipanema, 1833-1834 (fr), Gaudichaud 388 (F, G, P); Restinga Maca, 10 m, 11 Jan 1985 (fr), Gentry et al. 49409(K, MO); Gávea beach, 20 Jun 1875, Glaziou 8050(C, F, P); environs of Rio de Janeiro and Ouro Preto. 1883- 1884 (fr), Glaziou 10682 (K); Ipanema, 16 Jul 1927 (fl, fr), Harshberger 820 (US), 16 Jul 1927 (fl), Harshberger 3249 (NY); Sernambetiba beach, 30 Aug 1964 (fl), Halschbach et al. 11421 (CTES, U); Reserva Biológica Jacarepaguá, 8 Oct 1965 ( fl , fr), Lanna 935 (NY); 30 km W from Rio de Janeiro, Recreio dos Bandeirantes, 2 Jul 1967 (fl, fr), Lindeman & Haas 5538 (NY); Recreio dos Bandeirantes, 6 Aug 1940 (fl), Lutz 1692 (BM); Pedra de Itaúna, 9 Oct 1977 ( fl, fr), Maas & Carauta 3134 (U); Reserva Biológica de Jacarepaguá, 16 Oct 1938 (fr), Markgraf & Brade 3026 (RB); Arraial do Cabo Frio, between Araruama lake and Massambaba beach, 28 Mar 1978 (fl), Martinelli 4109 (RB); southern watershed of Pedra de ltaúna, 11 May 1973 (fl), Montalvo & Tcharo 28A (RB); Barra of Tijuca, 27 Aug 1948 (fl), Occhioni 1168 (RB); Pedra de Itaúna, 16 Aug 1975, Oliveira 1 (RB); Restinga Saquarema, 27 Oct 1963 (fl), Pabst 28141 (NY, U); Reserva Biológica Jacarepaguá. 10 Sep 1958 (fl), Pereira et al. 4170 (RB); Barra of Tijuca, 14 Jan 1969 (fl, fr), Plowman & Sucre 2928 (BH, F, K, US); Reserva Biológica Jacarepaguá, 5 Dec 1946 (fl, fr), Rizzini s.n. (RB); Sernambetiba, 4 Mar 1952, Smith et al 6333 (BH, US); Pedra de Itaúna, 16 Aug 1975. Souza s.n. (RB); Reserva Biológica Jacarepaguá, 19 Jan 1972 (fr), Sucre 8251 (BH); environs of Rio de Janeiro, 1858, Weddell 448 (G, P); Restinga Copacabana, 1858, Weddell 449 (G, P).
    CULTIVATED. PORTUGAL: Montserrate, Cintra, 25 Sep 1925 (fl), H. Cook H-1491-25 (K). JAMAICA: Botanical Department Jamaica, 31 May 1901 (fr), (K).
    U.S.A.: Florida: Fairchild Tropical Garden, 21 Mar 1963 (fl), Moore 8964 (BH), 18 Apr 1966 (fr), Moore 9371 (BH), 3 Jan 1964 (fl), Read 955 (BH).
    This species also grows in São Paulo state (L. Noblick. pers. comm.). The following collections were reported by Noblick to occur there: BRAZIL: SÃO PAULO: Guarapari, 23 Jan 1964 (fl), Hoehne 5520 (SP); Guarujá, 1 Nov 1910 (fr), Luederwalt s.n. (SP). (Mónica Moraes: Flora Neotropica, monograph 73, Allagoptera, ser. 73)A


    A. Mónica Moraes: Flora Neotropica, monograph 73, Allagoptera, ser. 73