Bactris plumeriana Mart., Voy. Amér. Mér. 7(3): 64 (1844)

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Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (
Dominican Republic present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)A
Haiti present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)A
Hispaniola (Haiti, Dominican Republic), submontane rain forest on slopes, or savannas, at 20-500 m elevation.


  • Bactris plumeriana is diagnosed by its linear, 46-67 pinnae per side, and depressed-globose, red, fruits 1.3-1.5 cm diameter. Salzman & Judd (1995) have given a detailed description and discussion of relationships of this species. Bactris ? chaetophylla, listed as an ambiguous name by Salzman & Judd, is a synonym of B. plumeriana. The type and description are based on a juvenile leaf.

Common Name

  • Haiti: coco macaque.


  • Stems cespitose, 4-10 m tall, 5-9 cm diam., spiny on internodes. Leaves 6-9; leaf spines somewhat clustered, black, to 3 cm long, often in 3 longitudinal rows on petiole, on abaxial surface of rachis, fewer on adaxial surface; sheath to 40 cm long; ocrea not seen; petiole 30-90 cm long; rachis 0.8-2 m long; pinnae 46-67 per side, irregularly arranged in obscure clusters, spreading in different planes, linear, unequally bifid with midrib terminating subapically, spinulose along the margins; middle pinnae 35-39 x 1.7-2 cm. Inflorescences interfoliar; peduncle 10-19 cm long, recurved, spiny; prophyll 12-16 cm long; peduncular bract 30-48 cm long, moderately to densely covered with black spines to 3 cm long; rachis 7-15 cm long; rachillae 28-45, 15-17 cm long, at anthesis covered with brown, moniliform trichomes; triads irregularly arranged among paired or solitary staminate flowers; staminate flowers ca. 2 mm long; sepal lobes to 1 mm long; petals to 2 mm long; stamens 6; pistillode small; pistillate flowers 1.5-3.5 mm long; calyx annular, 0.5-1 mm long; corolla cupular, 1-2 mm long; staminodes absent; fruits 1.3-1.5 cm diam., depressed-globose, red; mesocarp mealy or oily; endocarp turbinate, the sterile pores slightly displaced longitudinally; endocarp fibers absent; fruiting perianth with small calyx and three-angled, 2 mm long corolla, without staminodial ring.


    A. World Checklist of Arecaceae