Aiphanes hirsuta subsp. intermedia Borchs. & R.Bernal, Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 70: 64 (1996)

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Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (
Colombia present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Western slopes of Cordillera Occidental in the departments of Choco and Valle in central Colombia, 1300-2200 m, often left on pasture. (Borchsenius, F. and Bernal, R. 1996. Aiphanes (Palmae). Flora Neotropica 70. pp 1-95)A


  • This subspecies includes plants with long, narrowly cuneate pinnae, spiny inflorescences with 60-90 rachillae, and small to medium-sized fruit with longitudinally grooved endocarp having few pits. In the north it forms a transition to subsp. kalbreyeri; in the south it forms a transition to subsp. fosteriorum, which has more broadly cuneate pinnae, less spiny inflorescences, larger, glabrous fruits, and a more globose endocarp with numerous deep pits. In the central Choco, subsp. intermedia occurs side by side with subsp. hirsuta, but at higher altitudes. Pollen of A. hirsuta subsp. intermedia has perforate, tectate exine and is spineless or provided with numerous supratectal warts or spines. (Borchsenius, F. and Bernal, R. 1996. Aiphanes (Palmae). Flora Neotropica 70. pp 1-95)A


  • Stems 1-4, each 2-8 m tall, 6-10 cm diam., densely armed. Leaves 5-7; sheath 40 cm long, densely armed; petiole 43-80 cm long; rachis 220-242 cm long, unarmed; pinnae 31-32 per side, in rather lax groups of 3-5 separated by 13-22 cm, narrowly cuneate to cuneate, 3.5-8 times as long as wide, finely plicate, glabrous adaxially, minutely spinulose abaxially, truncate to lobulate-praemorse at apex; middle pinnae 44-81 x 14-15 cm. Peduncle 15-85 cm long at flowering, to 120 cm in fruit, 8-25 mm diam. at apex, covered with black spines, to 3 cm long; rachis 50-75 cm long, with numerous spines, to 1 cm long proximally, fewer and shorter distally; rachillae 60-108, densely covered with brown spinules, ca. 0.3 mm long, and with some short spines proximally; basal rachillae 40-84 cm long, without flowers for 2-8 cm, ca. 4 mm diam. in the androgynous part, ca. 2 mm diam. distally. Staminate flowers ca. 1.5 mm long (dry), violet to white, anthers purple, pollen orange. Pistillate flowers 4-5 mm long (dry), purple; sepals rounded; petals acute; pistil with whitish yellow spinules proximally. Fruit dark red, 11-13 mm diam.; epicarp minutely spinulose; endocarp with 3 deep broad longitudinal furrows, almost without pits. (Borchsenius, F. and Bernal, R. 1996. Aiphanes (Palmae). Flora Neotropica 70. pp 1-95)A

Materials Examined

  • Specimens examined. COLOMBIA. CHOCÓ: Rd. Cartago-San José del Palmar, ca. 10 km E of San José, 1800 m, 2 Apr 1976 (fl, fr), Dransfield et al. 4854 (BH, K); ibid., 1600 m, 11 Nov 1985 (fl), Lozano et al. 4903 (AAU, COL); (fl, fr), Lozano et al. 4905 (AAU, COL). VALLE: rd. Cartago-San José del Palmar, 2 km from dividing line between Valle and Chocó, 2000 m, 16 Mar 1991 (fl, fem fl, imm fr), Bernal & Borchsenius 1963 (AAU, COL, NY, TULV); basin of Río Dagua, Río San Juan, km 52-53 below Dagua, 1300-1500 m, 19 Mar 1947 (fl, fr), Cuatrecasas 23885 (F); rd. Trujillo-Cristales, 1800 m, 13 Apr 1989 (fl, fem fl, imm fr), Bernal & Devia 1555 (COL, TULV); rd. Queremal-El Danubio, 1300-1420 m, 24 Mar 1988 (fl, fr), Bernal & Prado 1455 (COL, TULV).
    (Borchsenius, F. and Bernal, R. 1996. Aiphanes (Palmae). Flora Neotropica 70. pp 1-95)A


    A. Borchsenius, F. and Bernal, R. 1996. Aiphanes (Palmae). Flora Neotropica 70. pp 1-95
    B. World Checklist of Arecaceae