Allagoptera campestris (Mart.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 726 (1891)

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This species occurs at 600-1500 m. It grows in the cerrado of central Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina, especially in open areas of campos sujos, cerrados with forest islands, campos rupestres, and campos gerais. (Mónica Moraes: Flora Neotropica, monograph 73, Allagoptera, ser. 73)A


  • The habitats of Allagoptera campestris include sandy to rocky slopes and tops of cerrado hills. It is also found in transitional areas between the caatinga and mata de cipó vegetation. (Mónica Moraes: Flora Neotropica, monograph 73, Allagoptera, ser. 73)A


  • Another collection which was not studied here but was reported to occur in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul (L. Noblick, pers. comm.), is as follows: RIO GRANDE DO SUL: Rio Grande, Sarandi, Post Agropecuario, 1957, Souza S.n. (HAS).
    This species has constant and variable characteristics. The disposition of the stiff and narrow pinnae, which are erect and appressed to the rachis at acute angles, and stamen number are distinctive when compared to the other species of Allagoptera. Nonetheless, this species varies greatly in height, pinnae length , the density of the tomentum, and the length of the spicate inflorescence.
    There may be hybrids between Allagoptera campestris and A. leucocalyx. There are two sources of evidence supporting this idea. First, some collections are a mixture of both species which demonstrate that they grow together. Second, some specimens exhibit the vegetative and habit features of A. campestris, but the size and length of inflorescence and number of stamens are those of A. leucocalyx, e.g., collections from Amambay, Paraguay. (Mónica Moraes: Flora Neotropica, monograph 73, Allagoptera, ser. 73)A

Common Name

  • Brazil: ariri, buri, buri do campo, côco de guriri , côco de vassoura, coquinha, coqueiro pissandó, imburi, licuri, ouricuri, pissandó, pissandú. (Mónica Moraes: Flora Neotropica, monograph 73, Allagoptera, ser. 73)A


  • The immature fruits are edible. The leaves are utilized as forage and for brooms. (Mónica Moraes: Flora Neotropica, monograph 73, Allagoptera, ser. 73)A


  • Plant 0.3-1 m tall; stem to 20 cm long, subterranean.
    Leaves 6-10; sheath and petiole fibrous, densely brown tomentose; petiole 15-25 cm long, ca. 0.8 mm diam., densely tomentose, covered with cream-brown woolly hairs; rachis 50-66 cm long, glabrous; pinnae 30-50 per side, short-lanceolate, thick, stiff and erect with acute tips, regularly inserted in groups of 2-3, 2-3 cm apart, at acute angles, plicate at base, inserted divergent to rachilla and covered with woolly hairs and ramenta to the middle, asymmetrically split for 0.2-0.4 cm at the obtuse apex, with evident midrib adaxially, depressed abaxially, with transverse veinlets not evident or less often near to midrib, concolorous dull waxy green or sometimes glaucous green adaxially; basal pinnae 10-21 x 0.4-1.1 cm; middle pinnae 14-25 x 0.6-0.8 cm; apical pinnae 4.5-7 x 0.2-0.4 cm.
    Inflorescences 24-52 cm long; peduncle 15-40 cm long, ca. 0.6 cm diam., slender, densely covered wilh woolly hairs and ramenta; rachilla 9-12 cm long, bearing whitish woolly hairs and/or ramenta; prophyll 12-25 cm, tubular, scarious; peduncular bract 30-45 cm long, ca. 3.5 cm diam., apiculate , woody, sulcate, with white woolly indumentum externally, glabrous and brown internally; peduncular bracts 1-2, scarious, dentate, 0.8- 5 cm long, at 1-2 cm from apex of peduncle. Staminate flowers ca. 6 mm long, pedicel <1 mm long, inserted somehow parallel to rachis; sepals connate to 15 mm from base, glabrous, coriaceous, with papillose hairs on margins, 6-7 x 4-5 mm; at petals valvate, free, glabrous, coriaccous, ca. 6 x 3-4 mm; stamens 6, ca. 3 mm long, the filaments columnar, the anthers ca. 2 mm long, slightly sagittate at apex; pislillode trifid. Pistillate flowers inserted on proximal 6-9 cm of rachilla, membranous; sepals free, triangul ar, ca. 7 x 3 mm, imbricate to the left, glabrous; petals free, triangular, ca. 6 x 3 mm, glabrous; staminodial ring short and irregular; pistil conical, ca. 6 mm; stigma trifid, with 3 short branches (to 4 mm), wrinkled, glabrous. Fruit ovoid to ellipsoid, sparsely covered with floccose indumentum or glabrous in lower ½ of fruit, ca. 1.2 cm long, ca. 0.7 cm diam., upwards inserted to the rachilla apex, the stigmatic remnants with curved stigmas, ca. 3 mm long, the persistent perianth to ½ of fruit; seed 1. (Mónica Moraes: Flora Neotropica, monograph 73, Allagoptera, ser. 73)A

Materials Examined

  • BRAZIL. BAHIA: Conquista, s.f., Bondar s.n. (F); Santa Rosa, between Piauí to Pernambuco, Rio Preto, Sep 1841 (fl, fr), Gardner 2971 p.p. (BM, K); estrada Barra da Estiva- Mucugê, 37 km from B. da Estiva, 19 Jul 1981 (fl), Giulietti et al. CFCR 1362 (K); 2 km SW from Morro do Chapeu, on rd. to Utinga, 1000 m, 3 Mar 1977 (fl, fr), Harley et al. 19341 (K); 9 km de Piatâ, 1250 m, 15 Feb 1987 (fl), Harley el al. 24240 (K); Serra da Agua de Rega, ca. 22 km N from Seabra, on rd. to Agua de Rega, 1000 m, 26 Feb 1971 (fr), Irwin et al. 31118 (NY); near Serra do Gentío, between Piatâ and Serra da Tromba, 21 Dec 1984 (fr), Stannard et al. CFCR 7389 (K).
    DISTRITO FEDERAL: Asa Norte, Parque Rural, CENARGEN, 21 Feb 1977, Allem 819 (UB), 10 Sep 1963 (fl, fr), Cobra & Oliveira 173 (NY); Brasília, 15 Jan 1962 (fl), Heringer 8839/1033 (NY), 15 km S from Brasília, on fd. to Belo Horizonte, 700-1000 m, 28 Aug 1964 (fl), Invin & Soderstrom 5678 (BH, NY); W of industrial sector, 1100 m, 27 Nov 1965 (fl), Irwin el al. 10716 (BH, NY, UB); National Park, 22 Jan 1978 (fr), Krapovickas et al.33184 (CTES, F); on rd. DF-16 to Gama, 3-7 km from the jct. with BR-040, 1100 m, 10 Jul 1984, Mori et al. 16672 (NY); Chapada da Contagem, 6 km on BR-010, on rd. to Brasilándia BR 080, 5 Feb 1987 (fr), Pirani et al. 1631 (K); Fazenda Agua Limpa, near Vargem Bonita, 18 km SSW from TV tower, 24 Nov 1976 (fl), Ratter et al. 3983 (K, UB), 2 Nov 1978 (fr), Ratter et al. 4259 (K), 13 Sep 1982 (fr), Ratter et al. 4780 (K). GOIAS: Chapada dos Veadeiros, 7 km N from Alto Paraiso, 1500 m, 4 Mar 1973 (fr), Anderson 6260 (NY, UB); Serra dos Cristais, 12 km N from Cristalina, 1060 m, 3 Apr 1973 (fl), Anderson 8023 p.p. (BH); Morro da Frota, near Meia Ponte, 7 Sep 1894, Glaziou s.n. (P); Serra dos Cristais, 15 Sep 1895, Glaziou 22276 (C, K, MO, P); 4 km E from jalaí, S from rd., 7 Jul 1966 (fl), Goodland 480 (NY); Chapada das Perdízes, 20 Jul 1963, Heringer 8926 (NY); Serra do Caiapô, ca. 60 km S from Caiapônia, on rd. to Jataí, 800-1000 m, 27 Oct 1964 (fl, fr), Irwin & Soderstrom 7450 (BH. NY, US); ca. 13 km NW from Veadeiros, 1200 m, 20 Oct 1965 (fl, fr), Irwin et al. 9366 (BH, NY), ca. 7 km W from Veadeiros to Chapada, 950 m, 15 Feb 1966 (fl, fr), Irwin el al. 12906 (BH, F, K, MO, NY, UB, US); Serra dos Pireneus, 15 km from Corumbá, on rd. from Goiás to Niquelândia, Corumbá river valley, 1150 m, 18 Jan 1968 (fr), Irwin et al. 18797 (BH, F, MO, NY, UB, US); Contraforte Central, ca. 58 km NE from Catalão, 26 Jan 1970 (fl, fr), Irwin et al. 25446 (BH, NY); between Goiás and Cuiabá, Nov-Dec 1844 (fl, fr), Weddell 2950 (P), Weddell 3002 (F, P); 20 km N ffom São João da Alian?a, 14 APf 1956 (fr), Yale Dawson 14222 (BH).
    MATO GROSSO: Campo Grande, Lagoinha, 6 Sep 1936, Archer & Gehrt 131 (36428 cited in Burret, 1940) (US); Buritiyero, 19 km from Piapua to São Ramon, 29 Nov 1984 (fl, fr), Balick et al. 1687 (NY); on rd. MT 364, Don Aguino, 13 Nov 1975 (fl), Hatschbach 37473 (F); Chapada dos Guimarães, 14 Nov 1975 (fl), Halschbach 37559 (F); 37 km NW from Ponta Porá, on rd. to Bela Vista, 26 Jun 1977 (fl), Krapovickas & Schinini 32740 (BH, C, CTES, F, G, K, MO, NY); 7 km from Ponta Porá, on rd. to Dourados, 19 Jan 1979. Krapovickas & Cristóbal 34291 (CTES); 9 km W from Caarapó, S of Mato Grosso, 19 Jan 1979 (fr), Krapovickas & Cristobal 34358 (CTES, F); 9 km E from Itacambira, on rd. to Montes Claros, 1200 m, 29 Feb 1984 (fl), Oliveira et al. CFCR 6581 (K); behind school Buriti, 720 m, 12 Oct 1973, Prance et al. 18886 (NY); Santa Ana da Chapada, Percy Sladen Expedition, 20 lun 1902 (fl), Robert 302 (BM); 23 km W from Ponta Porá, 13 Oct 1977 (fl), Silva Costa 128 (RB); Buriti, NE from Cuiabá, 1125 m, Jun 1927 (fl), Smith 173 (K); 7 km SW from Itamarandiba, port on rd. BR 129 to Coluna, 970 m, 1 Dec 1984 (fr), Stannard et al. CFCR 6670 (K); without locality, 9 Jun 1946 (fr), Veloso 1239 (RB).
    MINAS GERAIS: Dantas, Serra do Espinha?o, ca. 15 km S from Diamantina, 1250 m, 5 Feb 1972 (fr), Anderson et al. 35524 (BH, F, K, MO, NY, UB, US); Rio Grande, between Lanoso and Diamantina, 13 Sep 1927, Burchell 5750 (K, P), Burchell 5751 (K); Pirapora, Dec 1937 (fl), Barrel & Brade 22 (RB); on rd. to Grão Mogol, 9 May 1979, Ferreira et al. 703 (RB); near Formigas, Jul 1840 (fl), Gardner 5239 (BM); Serra do Inficionado, near Caraea, 18 Feb 1883 (fr), Glaziou 15682 (C, P); Sabara bay, 4 Mar 1892 (fl), Glaziou 20021 (C, F, K, P); Alto de São Calixto, 1100 m, 21 Mar 1980 (fr), Hatschbach 42843 (NY); Montes Claros, Serra Clattoni, 1000 m, 10 Nov 1938, Markgraf et al. 3229 (RB); on rd. Diamantina-Curvelo, 17 km from Diamantina, 1370 m, 1 Nov 1981 (fl), Menezes et al. CFCR 2635 (K); Paracatú, Fazenda Ponte Nova, 24 Dec 1981 (fl, fr), Pereira 138 (US); Diamantina, Piruruca, 28 May 1955 (fl), Pereira 1619 (RB); Uberaba, 1848, Regnell 1290 (US); without locality, 1816-1821, Saint-Hilaire 1149 (F, P), Saint-Hilaire 1372 (P), 1844, Weddell 1915 (G, P).
    PARANA: Jaguariaiva, 740 m, 3 Dec 1915 (fl), Dusén 17389 (G, MO, NY, US); river Cinzas, Barra do Perdízes, 27 Oct 1961 (fl), Hatschbach 8525 (US); Fazenda Cajurú, 8 Jul 1980 (fl), Hatschbach 43022 (NY); 10 km E from Vila Velha, 15 Feb 1973 (fr), Krapovickas et al. 23313 (CTES, F); Jaguariaiva, 135 km on rd. PR 151, 14 Jul 1992 (fl), Pardini & Marcato 80 (NY); between Ponta Grossa and Castro, 31 Dec 1879, Schwacke 2512 (RB); Carambei, near Rio São João, 950 m, 15 Jan 1965 (fl), Smilh et al. 14502 (US); Vila Velha, Furnas, 850 m, 20 Jan 1965 (fl), Smilh & Klein 14874 (US).
    SÃO PAULO: Born Retiro, SW of the municipio, river Paranapanema, limit between Capão Bonito and Buri, 25 Nov 1959 (fl, fr), Machado de Campos 139 (BH, NY); 10 mi. S from Itapetininga, on rd. to São Paulo, 600 m, 27 Nov 1959 (fr), Maguire & Maguire 44541 (NY); Angatuba, Instituto Florestal de São Paulo, 23 Nov 1983 (fl, fr), Ratter et al. 4976 (K).
    WITHOUT LOCALITY AND DATE: Clausen s. n. (P), (fr); Glaziou 15682 (C), (fl); Sellow s.n. (G, P).
    PARAGUAY. AMAMBAY: 30 km between Capitán Brado and Ipe-hú, 12 Jan 1979 (fr), Bernardi 19537 (F, G, NY); National Park Cerro Corá, hill on mt. Muralla, 2 Oct 1980 (fl), Fernández & Molero 3956 (NY), 4 Oct 1980 (fr), Fernández & Molero 4062 (NY); Canendiyú, 10 km from Itanará, 5 Feb 1982 (fr), Fernández & Molero 5984 (NY) Nalional Park Cerro Corá, 16 Aug 1980 (fl), Schinini & Bordas 20290 (CTES, F, G), 21 Aug 1980 (fl, fr), Sehinini & Bordas 20292 (CTES, F, G), 16Aug 1980 (fl), Sehinini & Bordas 20294 (CTES, F).
    CORDILLERA: San Pedro, 36 km N from San Estanislao, 18 Feb 1968 (fr), Krapovickas et al. 13965 (CTES, F); San Estanislao, Estancia La Manina, 22 Nov 1969 (fl, Fr), Pedersen 9356 (K).
    ARGENTINA, Misiones: Loreto, rd. 12, 15 Nov 1971 (fr), Krapovickas et al. 18265 (C, CTES, F, MO, P, US); 4 km from San Ignacio on rd. to Teyú Cuaré. 14 Jan 1976, Krapovickas & Cristóbal 28748 (C, CTES, F); environs of Loreto, 15 Jan 1976 (fl, fr), Krapovickas & Cristóbal 28771 (G, MO); Loreto, 23 Aug 1977 (fr), Lutz 2 (F); between San Ignacio and Loreto, Nov 1962 (fl), Martínez 9755 (CTES); Carballo, Nov 1962 (fl, fr), Martínez 9832 (CfES); Teyú Cuaré, 3 km S from Gendarmeriá. 10 Dec 1987, Vanni & Radovanovich 1031 (CTES). (Mónica Moraes: Flora Neotropica, monograph 73, Allagoptera, ser. 73)A


    A. Mónica Moraes: Flora Neotropica, monograph 73, Allagoptera, ser. 73