Pinanga coronata (Blume ex Mart.) Blume, Rumphia 2: 83 (1839)

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Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (
Andaman Is. present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Fiji present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Jawa present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Lesser Sunda Is. present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Society Is. present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Sumatera present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Sumatra, Java, to Lesser Sund Islands (Witono, J.R., Mogea, J.P. & Somadikarta, S. 2002: Pinanga in Java and Bali)A


  • Blume described P. kuhlii based on a specimen apparently from West Java (Java Occidentalis). Beccari (1886) mentioned that the type locality of P. kuhlii was Cisoka, West Java. This locality is in Lebak District, Pandeglang Regency, Banten Province. Index Kewensis says that the type locality of P. kuhlii is Malaya. This information is incorrect, and indeed no specimen or record has ever been documented from Malaya. Pinanga coronata was described based on a specimen from Megamendung, on the slopes of Mt. Gede-Pangrango, to the south-east of Bogor in West Java. Again Index Kewensis incorrectly cites the type locality of P. coronata as Celebes; however, P. coronata has so far never been found in Celebes. Blume (1839) separated P. kuhlii and P. coronata primarily based on leaves and growth of the inflorescence. The rachis of P. kuhlii is covered with small scales on the abaxial surface, the leaflets are broad (lanceolate to falcate), 10-13 in number and the inflorescence is pendulous. Characters of P. coronata are rachis smooth, leaflets narrow (linear to elongate), numerous, and inflorescence erect then pendulous. Specimens that were collected from lowlands usually have characters similar to P. kuhlii, but specimens from montane forest (>1000 m above sea level) usually have characters similar to P. coronata. In fact, between P. kuhlii and P. coronata, there are intermediate forms. Based on this evidence we conclude that the clustered Pinanga of Java and Bali represents a single species. Pinanga costata and P. noxa, are reduced to P. coronata because they have similar characters and are indistinguishable in the field and in the herbarium. Pinanga coronata was chosen by Beccari and Pichi-Sermolli (1955) as the type of the genus Pinanga, because Pinanga was first published by Blume, not in Rumphia (1838-1843), but in Bulletin des Sciences Physiques et Naturelles en Neerlande vol. 1 (1838). Although the genus Pinanga was described in the Bulletin, the species were merely listed and are nomina nuda. Before Rumphia 2 was published, Martius published Historia Natumlis Palmarum, vol. 3 (1838), in which he made the combination Areca coronata, which is the first validly published name for this species. The valid name of the clustered Pinanga in Java and Bali is thus P. coronata (Blume ex Mart.) Blume.
    Other names for clustered Pinanga in Java are P. nenga which was published by Blume (1838-1843), and P. neglecta which was published by Burret (1940). Pinanga nenga is the type of the genus Nenga. At present, the correct name for it is Nenga pumila. Pinanga neglecta is synonymous with Nenga pumila (Fernandol983). (Witono, J.R., Mogea, J.P. & Somadikarta, S. 2002: Pinanga in Java and Bali)A

Biology And Ecology

  • Occurring on very steep hillsides in montane forest and flat areas in lowland forest, from sea level to 1800 m above sea level. (Witono, J.R., Mogea, J.P. & Somadikarta, S. 2002: Pinanga in Java and Bali)A

Common Name

  • Bing-bin (West Java), piji (Central Java, East Java, and Bali), pinang rante (East Java). (Witono, J.R., Mogea, J.P. & Somadikarta, S. 2002: Pinanga in Java and Bali)A


  • Frequently cultivated as an ornamental and sometimes used for building material. (Witono, J.R., Mogea, J.P. & Somadikarta, S. 2002: Pinanga in Java and Bali)A


  • Small, clustered, undergrowth palm. Stems erect, unbranched, 2-8 (10) m tall, 1.5-7 (10) cm diam., with internodes 4.5-12 (20) cm, scars 0.5-1.2 cm; stem surface green to brownish green. Crownshaft swollen elongate, 50-100 cm long, 2.5-10 cm diam., slightly wider than the stem, green, yellowish or brownish green, or brownish to reddish yellow when adult, with brown scales, ligule poorly developed. Leaves 4-7 in the crown; whole leaf including leaf-sheath 150-300 cm; leaf-sheath 35-80 cm; petiole 20-100 cm, deeply oblique adaxially, convex abaxially; rachis 90-180 cm, petiole and rachis smooth or silvery indumentose below, flattened adaxially, convex abaxially, sharp near the apex; leaflets 6-30 on each side of rachis, entire, regularly arranged, elongate linear-lanceolate, falcate-sigmoid, basal leaflets 22-85 x 0.5-6.5 cm, with 1-5 ribs, middle leaflets 32-90 x 0.8-9 cm, with 1-7 ribs, apical leaflets 16-45 x 1.5-10 cm, with 2-13 ribs, notched to deeply cuneate to dentate, indumentose on lower ribs, the surfaces discolorous, upper pale green, lower dark green when fresh, on drying becoming pale brown to pale greenish brown on lower surface and dark brown to dark greenish brown on upper surface. Inflorescence infrafoliar, pendulous or erect then pendulous, green when young, becoming yellow pink to red, base very stiff; peduncle flattened, 1-6.5 x 0.5-2 cm; prophyll 20-28 x 4.5-8 cm, pale yellow when fresh, light brown when dry, smooth; rachis 2-9 x 0.2-1 cm, smooth; rachillae 5-22, glabrous, straight, spreading to parallel, not in same plar basal rachillae with 19-51 triads on each sid apical rachillae with 15-36 triads. Staminate flow sessile, creamy white, stamens 12-16 (28), pale yellow, about 3-3.5 x 0.2 - 0.4 mm. Pistilla flower creamy white, sessile, calyx cup-shape sepals orbicular to very broad orbicular, 2.5-5 2-3.5 mm, membranous, striate, imbricate acuminate-mucronate-obtuse at the apex, cilia at margins; petals usually smaller than sepal orbicular to very broad orbicular, 2-4.5 x 2-3. mm, membranous, striate, imbricate, acuminate-mucronate-obtuse at the apex; ovary rounded about 1-2 x 1 mm. Fruit obovoid, ellipsoid to ovoid, 11-15 x 6-10 mm, green when youn becoming yellow pink, red to brownish red stigmatic remains apical; epicarp smooth, shiny mesocarp thin, fleshy; endocarp with longitudinal fibers. Seed conforming to the fruit, 7.5-12 x 5-7. mm; endosperm deeply ruminate. (Witono, J.R., Mogea, J.P. & Somadikarta, S. 2002: Pinanga in Java and Bali)A

Materials Examined

  • JAVA. West Java Mandalawangi, Mt.Pulasari, Apr 1974, Dransfield JD4182 (BO); Pandeglang, Ujung Kulon Nationa Park, Sept 1951, Waalkes 406 (BO); Apr 1971 Dramfield JD1448 (BO); Apr 1971, Dransfield JD1464 (BO); May 1992, McDonald & Afriastin 3325 (BO); Oct 1998, Witono 79 (BO); Depok, Dei 1894, Hallier 1894 (BO); Nov 1896, Hallier s.n (BO); Hallier 1899 (BO); Aug 1898, Koorders 3104i (BO); Apr 1903, Koorders 40185 (BO); Apr 1904 Koorders 40191 (BO), Koorders 40192 (BO), Koorden 40193 (BO); Oct 1898, Backer 26279 (BO); Mai 1921, Backer 31254 (BO); May 1939, Van Steenh 11236 (BO), Van Steenis 11237 (BO); Bogor, Ocl 1910, Scheffer 16317 (BO); Aug 1935, Frank 35 (BO); Mt. Salak, Apr 1971, Dransfield JD1352 (BO), Dramfield JD13S9 (BO); Jul 1974, Yoshida 1576 (BO); Ciampea, Jul 1898, Koorders 30778 (BO); Jul 1914, Backer 15124 (BO); Burck s.n. (BO); Ciapus, Jun 1896, Hallier s.n. (BO); Hallier s.n. (BO); Cipancar, Jun 1896, Scheffer s.n. (BO); Jasinga, Oct 1 1970, Dransfield JD1012 (BO); Cibodas, Jul 1895, Hallier 412 (BO); Oct 1898, Koorders 32072 (BO); May 1914, Lorzing 1831 (BO); June 1941 Bloembergen 115 (BO); May 1948, Main 136 (BO); March 1952, Meijer 35 (BO); Jan 1971, Dransfield JD1135 (BO); Mar 1979, Mogea 1715 (BO); Boerlage s.n.; Cianjur, Jun 1900, Koorders 33369 (BO); Sukabumi, Lengkong, Nov 1970, Dransfield 1058 (BO); Apr 1980, Mogea 865 (BO), Mogea 866 (BO), Mogea 867 (BO); Ploem s.n. (BO); Jampang Kulon, Aug 1974, Yoshida 1888 (BO); Mt. Halimun, June 1980, Balgooy & Wiriadinata 2902 (BO); Karawang, : De Monchy 126 (BO); Bandung, Apr 1911, Smith 121 (BO); Oct 1918, Backer 26236 (BO); Augl941, Popta 31 (BO); Feb 1971, Dransfield JD1277 (BO); Aug 1976, Mogea 811 (BO); Oct 1976, Mogea 821 (BO), Mogea 822 (BO); Garut, Jan 1897, Koorders 26673 (BO); Bukit Himalaya Nature Reserve, Feb 1999, Witono 89 (BO); Feb 1999, Witono 90 (BO); Tasikmalaya, Aug 1913, Backer 8987 (BO); Aug Backer 9044 (BO); Jul 1917, Koorders 44345 (BO); Jan 1971, Dransfield JD1153 (BO); Jan 1971, Dransfield JD1212 (BO); Cirebon, Mt. Ciremai, Oct 1912, Backer 5059 (BO); Mt. Beser, Jun 1917, Backer 22611 (BO); Jun 1917, Smith 726 (BO); Mt. Cikukur, Mar 1914, Backer 12899 (BO); Mt Hiyang, Oct 1913, Backer 9652 (BO); Mt. Masigit, Mar 1914, Lorzing 1241 (BO); Mt. Windu, Apr 1909, Soegandiredja 233 (BO); West Java, Apr 1938, Franck 121 (BO); Mausjet 581 (BO); Raap 484 (BO); Central Java, Cilacap, Nusa Kambangan Island, Nov 1907, Legign (BO); Nov 1938, Kostermans 92 (BO);Purwokerto, Mt. Slamet, Pancuran Tujuh, Feb;1999, Witono 85 (BO); Purbalingga, Mt. Slamet, Goa Lawa, Febl999, Witono 89 (BO); Tegal, Jan 1919, Beumee 3699 (BO); Pekalongan, Mt. Prabata, Sept 1914, Backer 15970 (BO); Kendal, Kaliwungu, Cordes s.n. (BO); Yogyakarta, Teysmann s.n. (BO); Kudus, Mt. Muria, Nov 1951, Kostermans 6265 (BO); Jepara, Ngarengan, May 1899, Koorders 33226 (BO); May 1899, Koorders 33619 (BO), Koorders 33620 (BO); May 1916, Beumee 58 (BO); Rembang, Apr 1904, Koorders 36522 (BO); Feb 1 Koorders 42260 (BO; East Java. Madiun, Mt. Wills, Oct 1892, Koorders 6132 (BO); May 1896, Koorders 23153 (BO); Nov 1900, Koorders 38635 (BO); Kediri, Jun 1896, Koorders 22959 (BO); Mt. Wills, Feb 1914, Backer 11836 (BO); Dec 1998, Witono 82 (BO); Dec 1998, Witono 83 (BO); Witono 84 (BO); Malang, Mar 1971, Dransfield JD1330 (BO); Jul 1980, Mogea 2538 (BO); Besuki, Mt. Ijen, j7 Nov 1893, Koorders 14649 (BO); Feb 1896, Koorders 21686 (BO); Jul 1916, Koorders 42924 (BO); Apr 1920, Backer 30620 (BO); Jul 1938, Van Steenis 10717 (BO); Mar 1971, Dransfield JD1282 (BO); Kobus s.n. (BO); Jember, Mem Betiri National Park, Oct 1998, Witono 80 (BO); Situbondo, Mt. Argopuro, Apr 1914, Backer 13258 (BO); Banyuwangi, Mem Betiri National Park, May 1973 Dransfield JD3529 (BO); Oct 1998, Witono 81 (BO); Madura, Bawean Isl., Mt. Tinggi, May 1928, Karta 117 (BO). Bali. Bedugul, Bukit Tapak, May 1973, Dransfield JD3515 (BO); Bukit Lesung, Mar 1992, Afriastini 92 (BO); Bratan Lake, Jun 1976, Meijer 10538 (BO); Mt. Kelatakan, Jul 1918, Maier 64 (BO). (Witono, J.R., Mogea, J.P. & Somadikarta, S. 2002: Pinanga in Java and Bali)A


    A. Witono, J.R., Mogea, J.P. & Somadikarta, S. 2002: Pinanga in Java and Bali
    B. World Checklist of Arecaceae