Calamus laevigatus var. laevigatus

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Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (
Borneo present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Malaya present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Sumatera present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Thailand present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Throughout Brunei. Elsewhere throughout Borneo and Peninsular Malaysia, rather rare in Sumatra. (Dransfield, J. 1997: The Rattans of Brunei Darussalam)A


  • C. laevigatus var. laevigatus is a very widespread species occurring at altitudes up to 850 m above sea level and on a variety of soils. This is a very variable taxon. Some forms have very narrow leaflets. This species can easily be seen from the Labi Road in Andulau Forest Reserve. (Dransfield, J. 1997: The Rattans of Brunei Darussalam)A

Common Name

  • Rotan Liah (Br.,Mal.), Wi Anak (Ib.) (Dransfield, J. 1997: The Rattans of Brunei Darussalam)A


  • Smooth (Dransfield, J. 1997: The Rattans of Brunei Darussalam)A


  • Produces an excellent cane of the same diameter as rotan sega but as the plant is usually solitary, harvests are not great. (Dransfield, J. 1997: The Rattans of Brunei Darussalam)A


  • Solitary (very rarely clustered) moderate high-climbing rattan to 30 m or more; stem without sheaths 8-10 mm diam., with to 20 mm, internodes to 25 cm. Sheaths dull to pale green, drying very pale brownish-green, armed with sparse horizontal ± triangular spines borne on swollen bases, sometimes also with very faint horizontal ridges, sometimes unarmed, and with brown scales abundant on young leaf surfaces; knee conspicuous; ocrea scarcely developed. Leaf cirrate to 1 m, including the cirrus to 65 cm; petiole absent; leaflets c. 20 on each side of the rachis, concolorous, arranged irregularly, the basal up to 8 pairs on each side very close and strongly reflexed across the leaf sheaths forming a chamber in which ants frequently nest; upper leaflets in groups of 2-4 and fanned within the groups, the largest leaflets to c. 20 × 0.5-2 cm, somewhat plicate, drying very pale green. Inflorescences usually about the same length as the leaves, without a terminal flagellum, and with up to 10 partial inflorescences; main bracts rather densely armed with black-tipped, pale, bulbous-based spines and brown indumentum, ultimate bracts and bracteoles with abundant minute spines producing a rough feel. Mature fruit rounded, c. 12 mm diam., with a short beak and covered with 15-19 vertical rows of pale straw- to whitish-coloured scales, sometimes flecked with red. Seed rounded, c. 10 mm diam., deeply pitted; endosperm slightly ruminate. Seedling leaf bifid. (Fig. 35, Pl. 10D). (Dransfield, J. 1997: The Rattans of Brunei Darussalam)A

Materials Examined

  • BEL: Sungai Liang, Andulau F.R, Fuchs 21153. TEM: Amo, Belalong, Stockdale 11; Amo, Bt.Belalong, Dransfield J. 7111. TUT: Lamunin, Dransfield J. 6805. (Dransfield, J. 1997: The Rattans of Brunei Darussalam)A


    A. Dransfield, J. 1997: The Rattans of Brunei Darussalam
    B. World Checklist of Arecaceae